There are a number of ways to get 5V from a 12V supply and each has its advantages and disadvantages so I've drawn up 5 basic circuits to illustrate the point made in my comment.
Circuit 1 is a simple series resistor - just like the one "some people" were talking about.
Does it work? Yes. BUT it only works at one value of load current and it wastes most of the power supplied. If the load value changes the voltage will change, there is no regulation. However it will survive a short circuit at the output and protect the 12V source from shorting out.
Circuit 2 is a series zener diode (or you could use a number of ordinary diodes in series to make up the voltage drop - say 12 x silicon diodes)
Does it work? Yes. BUT most of the power is dissipated by the zener diode. Not very efficient! On the other hand it does give a degree of regulation if the load changes. However - short circuit the output and the magic blue smoke will break free from the zener. Such a short circuit may also damage the 12V source once the zener is destroyed.
Circuit 3 is a series transistor (or emitter follower) - a junction transistor is shown but a similar version could be built using a MOSFET as a source follower.
Does it work? Yes. BUT most of the power has to be dissipated by the transistor and it isn't short circuit proof. Like circuit 2 you could end up damaging the 12V source. On the other hand regulation will be improved (due to the current amplifying effect of the transistor). The zener diode no longer has to take the full load current so a much cheaper/smaller/lower power zener or other voltage reference device can be used. This circuit is actually less efficient than circuits 1 and 2 because extra current is needed for the zener and its associated resistor.
Circuit 4 is a three terminal regulator (IN-COM-OUT). This could represent a dedicated IC such as a 7805 or a discrete circuit built from op amps / transistors etc.
Does it work? Yes. BUT the device (or circuit) has to dissipate more power than is supplied to the load. It is even more inefficient than circuits 1 and 2 because the extra electronics takes additional current. On the other hand it would survive a short circuit and so is an improvement on circuits 2 and 3. It also limits the maximum current that would be taken under short circuit conditions protecting the 12v source.
and finally ...
Circuit 5 is a buck type regulator (DC/DC switching regulator).
Does it work? Yes. BUT the output can be a bit spikey due to the high frequency switching nature of the device. However. Its very efficient because it uses stored energy (in an inductor and a capacitor) to convert the voltage. It has reasonable voltage regulation and output current limiting. It will survive a short circuit and protect the battery.
They all work and they all have their pros and cons - i.e. they all produce 5V across a load. Some work better than others in terms of protection, regulation and efficiency. Like most things its a trade off between simplicity, cost, efficiency, reliability etc . in other words engineering design.
Regarding 'constant current' - you can't have a fixed (constant) voltage and a constant current with a variable load. You have to choose - constant voltage OR constant current. If you choose constant voltage you can add some form of circuit to LIMIT the maximum current to a safe maximum value - such as in circuits 4 and 5.