What is voltage?
If we drop right down to basic physics, we find that both Charge and Energy are quantities with a Conservation Law. These Laws hold in both Classical and Quantum physics, in Newtonian and General Relativity. So we can be safe in taking these as having some sort of fundamental existence.
Voltage OTOH is not mentioned at all. Voltage only appears as a defined quantity that's handy to work with, as the potential energy of an electrical field. Voltage is defined as the change of energy associated with the movement of a charge (to within a scaling factor and dimension depending on what units we are using for energy and charge and whether it's per charge or absolute).
So when we push some charge (a current flowing for some time) through a resistor, see a voltage across it, and see energy released as heat from the resistor, it's not even appropriate to ask whether the heat causes the voltage or vice versa, the voltage is just a definition of what is happening with the charge movement.
If we have a conductor through which no energy is associated with the movement of charge, then there is no voltage drop across it (@Andy), and it's called a superconductor.
An analogy is height, potential energy for a gravitational field, change of which is the energy associated with moving a mass. A superconductor is like an air table, where the mass can slide sideways without a change of potential energy. Letting it drop against a frictional restraint generates heat in the 'frictor'.
The definition of voltage and the gravity analogy works for storage of energy in capacitors, inductors, height and velocity as well, but let's keep it simple for the moment with just finite or zero resistance.