"Would electronics survive?" Yes, if the datasheet says so...
Why on earth would the manufacturers do this to you? Why would they jot down such and awful requirement? Because, when the temperature rises the integrated circuits fail.
Why do they fail? From the wiki:
Most stress-related semiconductor failures are electrothermal in
nature microscopically; locally increased temperatures can lead to
immediate failure by melting or vaporising metallisation layers,
melting the semiconductor or by changing structures. Diffusion and
electromigration tend to be accelerated by high temperatures,
shortening the lifetime of the device; damage to junctions not leading
to immediate failure may manifest as altered current-voltage
characteristics of the junctions. Electrical overstress failures can
be classified as thermally-induced, electromigration-related and
electric field-related failures
Another reason is humidity, get a little water in a small space and then turn the temperature up, you just made popcorn! Water gets into everything. (unless you actually take some prevention, they don't stick the humidity sensors in the IC packaging for no reason).
I've talked with other engineers with intermittent failures. The conversation is the same, they forgot to do a few key things like:
1) ESD prevention
2) Humidity control
3) Thermal profile control
After they control these things, the intermittent problems go away, if you want to go in the other direction, you will be creating problems for yourself. Would it be acceptable to have a 1% failure rate? What about 0.1% or even 0.001%?
You are more than welcome to try it with the components you have, and you are more than welcome to play russian roulette. But be prepared to deal with the consequences.
Manufacturers know why their chips fail, they have teams of people and equipment to rip of the epoxy layers and look at their ic's and determine why they fail. Then they write requirements, the absolute maximums and the temperature profile for the IC packaging are a bible for ensuring your components don't fail.
Of course you have options, price vs temperature. They make components that can take abuse and have appropriate materials and manufacturing methods to take such abuse.