In the Operational Amplifiers part of Analog University from National Semiconductor, I saw an offset voltage measuring circuit for an OP-AMP. Here is the page. I've included some details and the schematic below:
It says that this is a very accurate way of measuring Vos. In LTspice, I've built this circuit with two LT1001 s and the output of the OP-AMP saturates to +5V. I used +5V and GND for the supplies.
In the page, it says that if +1V is applied to the "Servo Input", the output of the DUT will be +1V. I can understand that since the Servo OP-AMP will try to make its both inputs the same by changing its output voltage accordingly. Since there is almost no voltage drop across 10k in the non-inverting input of the Servo OP-AMP, output of the DUT will be +1V.
For example, say the DUT has an offset voltage of +500 μV and NO gain errors and the Servo Input is set to +2.5V. The DUT's output will now be set to 2.5V and VOS will be at +500 mV regardless of the Servo Input setting. Any gain error would be summed in along with the offset voltage, and the result is multiplied by the loop gain (1000). With the Servo Input grounded the circuit basically functions as a "gain of 1000" test circuit. The Servo amp contributes very little in the way of offset errors (the servo amp's offset is divided 'down' by the loop gain).
I couldn't understand why Vos (output of the Servo OP-AMP?) will be at +500mV (that is the gain multiplied by the offset voltage of the DUT)? Both OP-AMPs are in each others feedback loop, however, DUT is in the positive feedback loop of the Servo. Why is that? It would be great that you include Vos as a voltage source when you are explaining.
(I am so puzzled and thus maybe I was not clear. Please notify me and I will edit accordingly.)