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According to Wikipedia, processing power is strongly linked with Moore's law:


The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years. The trend has continued for more than half a century and is not expected to stop until 2015 or later. The capabilities of many digital electronic devices are strongly linked to Moore's law: processing speed, memory capacity, sensors and even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras. All of these are improving at (roughly) exponential rates as well.

As someone who has some background in computer architecture, I don't understand why throwing in more transistors in a CPU would boost a its power since ultimately, instructions are roughly read/executed sequentially. Could anyone explain which part I'm missing?

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More transistors = more parallelism – Toby Jaffey Oct 25 '10 at 10:08
It's true no matter how many cores the processor has. – Thomas O Oct 25 '10 at 13:01
Yes. More transistors means you can put in more parallel execution units. Bigger cache. Deeper pipelines. – Kaz Oct 21 '12 at 2:09
Cache is the big one. I think that the proportion of the silicon real estate dedicated to cache has been increasing. Most of the performance of modern processors is attributable to caching, and caching only works when there is locality, but the larger the caches, the more relaxed is the requirement for locality (bigger applications with more wacky memory access patterns are still sped up). – Kaz Oct 21 '12 at 2:11
Think about just a multiplier. With enough transistors, you can use a full lookup table and do the whole multiplication in one step. With fewer transistors, you have to do things like repeated addition. – David Schwartz Jun 17 at 16:42
up vote 25 down vote accepted

A lot of things that give you more power just require more transistors to build them. Wider buses scale the transistor count up in almost all processor components. High speed caches add transistors according to cache size. If you lengthen a pipeline you need to add stages and more complex control units. If you add execution units to help mitigate a bottleneck in the pipeline, each of those requires more transistors, and then the controls to keep the execution units allocated adds still more transistors.

The thing is, in an electronic circuit, everything happens in parallel. In the software world, the default is for things to be sequential, and software designers go to great pains to get parallelism built into the software so that it can take advantage of the parallel nature of hardware. Parallelism just means more stuff happening at the same time, so roughly equates to speed; the more things that can be done in parallel, the faster you can get things done. The only real parallelism is what you get when you have more transistors on the job.

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First instructions are not necessarily "executed sequentially" even on a non-VLIW ISA, execution only needs to appear sequential. An in-order superscalar implementation can execute more than one instruction in parallel with another. To do this effectively the hardware for decoding instructions must be increased (widened), hardware must be added to ensure data independence of instructions to be executed in parallel, the execution resources must be increased, and the number of register file ports is generally increased. All of these add transistors.

An out-of-order implementation, which allows later instructions to be executed before earlier ones as long as there are no data dependencies, uses additional hardware to handle scheduling of instructions as soon as data becomes available and adds rename registers and hardware for mapping, allocating, and freeing them (more transistors) to avoid write-after-read and write-after-write hazards. Out-of-order execution allows the processor to avoid stalling.

The reordering of loads and stores in an out-of-order processor requires ensuring that stores earlier in program order will forward results to later loads of the same address. This implies address comparison logic as well as storage for the addresses (and size) of stores (and storage for the data) until the store has been committed to memory (the cache). (For an ISA with a less weak memory consistency model, it is also necessary to check that loads are ordered properly with respect to stores from other processors--more transistors.)

Pipelining adds some additional control and buffering overhead and prevents the reuse of logic for different parts of instruction handling, but allows the different parts of handling an instruction to overlap in time for different instructions.

Pipelining and superscalar execution increase the impact of control hazards (i.e., conditional branches and jumps). Pipelining (and also out-of-order execution) can delay the availability of the target of even unconditional jumps, so adding hardware to predict targets (and direction for conditional branches) allows fetching of instructions to continue without waiting for the execution portion of the processor to make the necessary data available. More accurate predictors tend to require more transistors.

For an out-of-order processor, it can be desirable to allow a load from memory to execute before the addresses of all preceding stores have been computed, so some hardware to handle such speculation is required, potentially including a predictor.

Caches can reduce the latency and increase the bandwidth of memory accesses, but add transistors to store the data and to store tags (and compare tags with the requested address). Additional hardware is also needed to implement the replacement policy. Hardware prefetching will add more transistors.

Implementing functionality in hardware rather than software can increase performance (while requiring more transistors). E.g., TLB management, complex operations like multiplication or floating point operations, specialized operations like count leading zeros. (Adding instructions also increase the complexity of instruction decode and typically the complexity of execution as well--e.g., to control which parts of the execution hardware will be used.)

SIMD/vector operations increase the amount of work performed per instruction but require more data storage (wider registers) and typically use more execution resources.

(Speculative multithreading could also allow multiple processors to execute a single threaded program faster. Obviously adding processors to a chip will increase the transistor count.)

Having more transistors available can also allow computer architects to provide an ISA with more registers visible to software, potentially reducing the frequency of memory accesses which tend to be slower than register accesses and involve some degree of indirection (e.g., adding an offset to the stack pointer) which increases latency.

Integration--which increases the number of transistors on a chip but not in the system--reduces communication latency and increases bandwidth, obviously allowing an increase in performance. (There is also a reduction in power consumption which may be translated into increased performance.)

Even at the level of instruction execution, adding transistors can increase performance. E.g., a carry select adder adds upper bits twice in parallel with different assumptions of the carry-in from the lower bits, selecting the correct sum of upper bits when the carry out from the lower bits is available, obviously requiring more transistors than a simple ripple carry adder but reducing the delay in producing the full sum. Similarly a multiplier with a single row of carry-save adders uses fewer transistors (but is slower) than a Dadda (or Wallace) tree multiplier and cannot be pipelined (so would have to be replicated to allow another multiply to begin execution while an earlier multiply was in progress).

The above may be exhausting but is not exhaustive!

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Excellent answer from a new guy! – Connor Wolf Oct 20 '12 at 7:14

The number of transistors does not necessarily correlate to more processing power, however, with more transistors, the processor can perform increasingly more complicated instructions than before. For example, a processor with SSE will use additional transistors to implement these complex instructions (adding many numbers in one cycle, for example.)

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Alan Kay calculated that since he was working on Smalltalk in Xerox PARC we have lost 18 years of transistor doubling because of wrong architectures and software inefficiency because computers are certainly not as fast as transistor doubling would suggest. – jpc Mar 21 '11 at 3:21

Another factor: as you cram more transistors into a given area they get smaller, making them faster.

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As transistors get closer and closer together you get other undesired effects, such as increased leakage current, so it's a trade off between performance and low power - most manufacturers seem to have gone for performance. – Thomas O Oct 25 '10 at 11:19

Microprocessors have advanced significantly in recent years, things like longer pipelines, predicative branching and on chip cache have all added to the complexities associated with a processor.

Sure the basics of CPU processing, fetch, decode, ALU, write is still the same, but to speed things up, longer pipelines are used. Longer pipelnes increase performance for continous code executiion, but also incur bigger hit times when the code branches damage performance. Remedy, predictive branching. Predictive branching is a trade secret, that intel do not normally disclose the full workings of, just simply use it to keep the performance as high as possible on their CPUs.

Cache memory is much faster than RAM, but what to move from RAM into cache and from cache back to RAM??? That is again, proprietary stuff, but it again takes transistors to implement.

So the extra transistors go into things like the longer pipeline, predictive branch algorithms, cache memory, and memory algorithms.

This is without mentioning multi core processors, and shared memory/resource access controllers.

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