Voltages are relative things. In practice, it's best to always think of them in terms of a reference voltage which you have available (and which, consequently, is usually the ground)
If you already have +/-5V, it's likely that you have a ground present (0V). If you're using a single 10V battery and just treating them as +/-5, then it really is only a difference in bookkeeping on your part. The reason I'm saying this, is because
does it only work for positive voltage supplies?
suggests that you seem slightly confused with regards to ground. If you have no ground, and you give the IC +/-5V, this is practically identical to giving it 0/10V. Even if you did have a ground somewhere, and still gave the IC +/-5V, it is no different from giving it 0/10V unless you have also given it GND through a pin which it treats as grounds, since as far as the IC is concerned, the only supplies of consequence are it's 0/10V inputs. You should, though, make sure that every pin of the said IC is within the limits specified within the datasheet. Beyond that, positive and negative in the context of a single voltage node is only relevant in the context of a specific ground or other 'reference node', and isn't a god-given distinction.