Tagged Questions

A CPU, or Central Processing Unit, is the heart of any digital computer.

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0answers
16 views

How to unlock the hidden (locked) settings in BIOS on Linux? [migrated]

I got a HP 255 G2 laptop and I am dual-booting Ubuntu 14.04 (32-bit) with Kali Linux 1.0.9 (64-bit).I got an AMD quad-core CPU,which runs at 1.5 GHz,so I want to overclock it at 2,0 or 2,5 GHz but I ...
1
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3answers
129 views

How to make the hottest CPU temperature?

Besides just running an infinite loop, are there any tricks (like maybe cache misses?) to making a CPU as hot as possible? This could be architecture specific or not.
0
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0answers
76 views

Why are there so many SMD resistors near CPUs and GPUs? [duplicate]

I'm not really sure if these SMDs are resistors or capacitors, but I've always wondered the purpose of them. Supposing that they are resistors: Do they work as a sort of protection measure? Current ...
0
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0answers
7 views

Computer shutting down after playing a graphical game [migrated]

For a while, whenever i play a graphically intensive game, The computer just shuts down unexpectedly, with no warning. These are my specs: Intel Quad Core Q6600 AMD Sapphire R9 500 watts power ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

How to calculate cache size?

A cache with a line size of L 32-bit words, S number of sets, W ways, and addresses are made up of A bits. Assume that the cache is word addressed, i.e., the low two bits of the address are ...
0
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1answer
59 views

How do you store A or B in a RAM of a CPU datapath?

I have an assignment to make a CPU, but am confused with how f_left and f_right are going to be used. I think they are to store ...
0
votes
4answers
121 views

How does a CPU choose a path? [closed]

This is the most baffling question of all other concepts. I ask my teacher "How does the computer choose a path?" "They program it" "How do they program it?" "..." I have a basic understanding ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Pipeline Processor Calculation

My assignment deals with calculations of pipelined CPU and single cycle CPU clock rates. The following data is given, about the time each operation takes to execute: ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

RAM and data copying/moving

I was wondering about the copying/moving of data in RAM and I couldn't help but thing about the possibility of having the RAM process basic memory operations such as copying/moving of memory, if ...
0
votes
1answer
108 views

How to program pentium CPU [closed]

I have two perfectly good CPUs-one a Pentium m, the other a Pentium III-and they're just sitting in antistatic bags and bubble wrap doing nothing. I want to use them for SOMETHING, I know their ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

How to test OpenSPARC CPU?

There are several open-source general-purpose CPUs, and the most advanced of them seems to be OpenSPARC T2 (correct me, if I'm wrong). I want to find out, with what effort I can build a machine, ...
2
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2answers
63 views

Processor Budgeting

How do I figure out if a microcontroller has enough processing speed to handle particularly "intensive" tasks? Specifically, I am a university student looking to design a robot that uses OpenCV and a ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

CPU and clock rate

As I understand it, CPUs generate electrical pulses using a quartz crystal. The rate the pulses are generated (taking into account various multipliers) give the processing speed which all components ...
17
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4answers
3k views

How can a CPU deliver more than one instruction per cycle?

Wikipedia's Instructions per second page says that an i7 3630QM deliver ~110,000 MIPS at a frequency of 3.2 GHz; it would be (110/3.2 instructions) / 4 core = ~8.6 instructions per cycle per ...
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votes
2answers
84 views

How many people might have been involved in the design of the Macintosh SE? [closed]

It is really difficult for me to know how many people were in charge of the development of this electronic wonder. When I'm struggling to properly comprehend transistors and how they work, these ...
1
vote
2answers
117 views

Why long pipelines are preferred over high CPU clock?

Why modern CPU vendors prefers increasing the maximum length of the pipeline over increasing the clock? Accordingly my understanding, increasing either increases the number of gate switches and so ...
55
votes
7answers
6k views

What limits CPU speed?

I've recently talked with a friend about LaTeX compilation. LaTeX can use only one core to compile. So for the speed of LaTeX compiliation, the clock speed of the CPU is most important (see Tips for ...
6
votes
6answers
1k views

How does a non-FPGA (ie a PC with a CPU, RAM, hard drive) mimic logic gates?

I know that an FPGA uses look-up tables (LUTs) to synthesize logic gates. A LUT is a block of RAM that is indexed by a number of inputs. The output is the value stored at that memory address. The ...
3
votes
2answers
180 views

Why does Intel looks so advanced compared to other foundries, engraving fineness-wise? [closed]

Latest chips from Intel were 22nm, and they are now targeting 14nm (coming in 2014 or 2015 it seems). On the other hand, Global Foundries or TSMC struggle since several years to go beyond the 28nm ...
-2
votes
1answer
343 views

Were can I find a simple CPU Design tutorial / book? [closed]

I basically want to know how to make(In hardware and in a simulator) a simple CPU. A book that covers low level stuff like, like logic gates, and more high level stuff like a complete CPU. Ive tried ...
0
votes
1answer
231 views

What are these hardware components, and how do I control them?

My father received a video card in the mail last week. He gave it to me and I dismantled the card to get to just the video player and other components. The labels here are based on my experience ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

What defines whether a CPU should be in LGA of PGA package?

All modern Intel CPUs I know are in LGA package. At the same time, AMD CPUs mostly are in PGA packages, with only server ones packaged in LGA. What are the reasons for Intel to use and AMD to not use ...
2
votes
1answer
299 views

AC/DC 4W vs 2A GSM transmission bursts

I have a big problem with the power supply of a SIM900. I designed my own board with a 220VAC-5VDC tracopower, an ARM9 CPU, and a GSM/GPRS SIM900 module. The output of the tracopower is 5V - 800 mA ...
0
votes
1answer
265 views

Why a lower voltage is better for modern fast CPU and other similar chips?

I started to use computers in the 1980's. As far as I remember 8bit CPUs of those times like Z80 were often powered by 5 V and used the same voltage for I/O signals. Later CPUs run at higher speeds ...
1
vote
3answers
90 views

Is quantum tunneling in transistors patterned?

Quantum tunneling is a problem when engineering a nano scale transistor. Generating random numbers is a common issue in computer science. I'm not an expert in either of these fields, but to someone ...
1
vote
2answers
156 views

PCI-Express Processor/Co-processor cards [closed]

I am hoping someone might be able to help: In the days when I started with computing (C64 and later Amigas) expansion slot cards with co-processing ability were relatively common. I am looking for ...
5
votes
3answers
601 views

Why is L1 cache faster than L2 cache?

I'm trying to understand why certain CPU cache memories are faster than others. When comparing cache memory to something like main memory, there are differences in memory type (SRAM vs DRAM), and ...
0
votes
1answer
84 views

Hardware accelleration for Python dict?

I wondered if it were possible to accelerate in hardware the Python dict? Dicts are mappings between a key and value that form a large part of the backbone of how Python works. Everything is an ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

how the CPU start by execution stored in motherboards flash memory chip [closed]

I had read that at start, the CPU program counter register is fill with F000. I though that: PC registers contain the next instruction address. This address is send to the address bus and value ...
1
vote
2answers
413 views

How does a GPU/CPU communicate with a standard display output? (hdmi/dvi/etc) [closed]

I am interested in how the cpu/gpu presents (to whatever equipment that it does) video data after it has been processed. I have been told that the video is processed by the cpu/gpu and then sent to an ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Dynamic energy and dynamic power in microprocessors

In a class I'm learning about dynamic energy and dynamic power and the notes seem to be incomplete. ...
0
votes
2answers
99 views

Programming with ARM without microcontroller context [closed]

I want to make an application that will use ARM CPU. Am I bound to using microcontrollers? The thing is the microcontrollers that have ARM as a base are really big in physical size. Can I create a ...
20
votes
3answers
3k views

How can an FPGA outperform a CPU

I hear of people using FPGAs to improve performance of systems that do things like bit-coin mining, electronic trading, and protein folding. How can an FPGA compete with a CPU on performance when ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

Combining CPU and RAM on stacked silicon

Xilinx developed a way to combine multiple dies in a single package by using a silicon interposer (I don't know whether they're actually are the first ones to do this). This way, they achieve huge ...
-2
votes
2answers
97 views

How many electrons does it take to switch on a transistor [closed]

How many electrons does it take to switch on a transistor, I read somewhere that Inel had made some electrical "paths" so small that they can allow only individual electrons to flow at a time, or ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

CISC, microcode execution flow

Say we have 16 bit processor and such CISC instruction: 0001 0010 0100 1000 As far as I understood from the answer on related question In the process of decoding, this CISC instruction will be ...
1
vote
1answer
762 views

ARM9 vs ARM11 performance? [closed]

This may be a loaded question, but is there a general understanding of the performance increase per clock between ARM9 and ARM11? Say, for a math-heavy function (FFT)? Thanks!
4
votes
2answers
177 views

Xbee not responding timely. Large delay between each transmission

I have prepared a setup for 2 Xbees one connected to the PC via XCTU and the other interfaced with Atmega 168. The terminal software will send 1 and the xbee with Atmega 168 will return 1. The code ...
-1
votes
2answers
151 views

What happens when the same interrupt is caused during an ISR? [closed]

To handle an interrupt the processor jumps to an interrupt service routine (ISR). If this ISR generates the same interrupt then this can result in: a) program error b) hardware error c) stack ...
1
vote
1answer
616 views

What is the fastest logic gate?

I have been told that the fastest logic gate family is ECL. My first question: Is this true? In this or another family (Depending on the answer to the above question), Is there any particular gate ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

What is the Global Descriptor Table memory type?

What type of memory type is used for the Global Descriptor Table in an Intel Core 2 CPU? Is it just EEPROM or does the CPU normally use another type of NVRAM?
3
votes
2answers
117 views

How interrupts handle does work on a physical layer

I want to understand how HW IRQ does work on a physical layer. I ask my question considering a specific example. As known after a packet coming to a network adapter a hardware interrupt is signalling. ...
2
votes
1answer
552 views

Why does capacitor charge slowly but discharge quickly?

I've designed this circuit using Multism 10.1 : This circuit is part of clock generator for 8088 uP: Why does the wave of ch1 of Oscilloscope which represent the voltage across the capacitor take ...
4
votes
2answers
243 views

What is the function of the capacitor and the diode here?

This photo: is taken from the book: The Intel Microprocessor Family: Hardware and Software Principles and Applications, pageĀ 298. This is a 8284 (clock generator) for the 8088 microprocessor. What ...
2
votes
3answers
164 views

Why the frequency of single-core CPUs has stopped increasing? [duplicate]

I wonder why CPU vendors stopped producing CPU with frequencies above 3.0 - 3.6 Ghz and switched to using multi-core CPUs? What was the reason behind this step? Was there a physical constraint or the ...
3
votes
1answer
171 views

Building a simple PC - looking for a CPU [closed]

I would like to build a computer. It is a child's dream that I had and now that I am at college, I finally gain the knowledge I need. I want it to be simple. I admire the early designs of 1990's ...
0
votes
2answers
278 views

How to avoid input/output conflicts with a bus

How does a system bus work? I don't understand how can a circuit avoid input/output issues with a bus. I included an image to better explain my thinking. The circuit has 2 general purpose ...
0
votes
1answer
242 views

Is the speed of light the upper bound on CPU speed? [closed]

Edit: As this my first question in this site I was a bit confused how to pose the question. Because of the way I had put the question before has made it trouble to understand What is the fastest ...
0
votes
1answer
153 views

What software to graphically design a simple schematic? [duplicate]

I need to draw a schematic similar to that shown in the figure attached in this question. Are there softwares that allow to graphically design a schematic like that?
0
votes
1answer
122 views

Doubts in two level cache system

A computer system has an L1 cache, an L2 cache, and a main memory unity connected as shown below. The block size in L1 cache is 4 words. The block size in L2 cache is 16 words. The memory access times ...