Tagged Questions

Related to all communication systems that use a given digital sequence as an interface between the source and the channel input.

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7
votes
8answers
753 views

Is there any way to use half-bits?

As most people here know, by using 4 bits, we are able to count from 0 to 15 (0123456789ABCDEF in hexadecimal). But if we were to only count up to 9, we would still be using 4 bits, and the digits ...
2
votes
0answers
13 views

choice of parity bits for linear block codes

We know that in linear block codes the codeword for a given a message is generated by multiplying the message with the generator matrix G . The generator matrix consists of a sub-matrix which is the ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

A closed form for calculating shaping gain

As we know, in a communication system, we can divide the overall gain into coding gain and shaping gain, but I have not seen any closed form formula for calculating shaping gain, but the definition ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Transferring data from FPGA to PC (new to FPGAs)

FPGA beginner here. I have a Basys2 FPGA board(i code in verilog) and i wish to make it communicate with my PC. Currently it receives data from a slave device and stores it in an 64 bit register. ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Error Correcting Codes - Communications

I'm doing a research on the the physical effect of unbalancing the fraction of 1's and 0's in digital communications. Can anyone quote a specific FEC code that adds for example up to 20% overhead to ...
-1
votes
0answers
25 views

linear modulation versus non linear modulation [closed]

Which modulations schemes can be considered linear, and which ones are non linear. What are the pros ans cons of using a linear modulation and non linear modulation schemes.. Thanks in advance, Phani ...
2
votes
2answers
46 views

TTL Long Distance Transmission Alternatives

I am working on a system that gets data from a sensor via a TTL connection. Currently, the data that is gathered from the sensor is sent to another part of the system via a set of modems. The ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Variance of background thermal noise wireless communications?

I am new to this forum and hope I can get some help. I have been reading a paper on wireless communications, in this paper a base station with power P=25 is serving a certain user. The user is ...
0
votes
3answers
118 views

How to increase range of zigbee?

I have a Zigbee Pro with Arduino whose range is 2 miles as per specifications. But practically its maximum range is only 200 meters. I am using XCTU software. Is there any setting/configuration in ...
-1
votes
1answer
49 views

Noise level, SNR and BER relationship in BPSK modulation

I would like to know what is the relationship between SNR, noise level and BER in BPSK modulation scheme? Can you please tell me the formula?
0
votes
1answer
64 views

What is the difference between 1-bit SDIO vs SPI?

What exactly is the between 1-bit SDIO vs SPI? Does one have advantages/disadvantages over the other?
0
votes
2answers
60 views

What is the minimum bandwidth required for a digital communication system using 32-QAM modulation?

If the bit rate of the digital communication system is 'R' Kbps & the modulation used is 32-QAM, what is the minimum bandwidth required for ISI free transmission? My understanding & analysis ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

what is superposition coding?

In the context of multiple access techniques, there is a coding scheme called "Superposition Coding" or particularly "Superposition Coding with Successive Decoding(SCSD)". I surfed the internet, and ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Difference between spectral efficiency and bit rate

I am reading articles about error correcting codes, facing to a term "spectral efficiency". Due to the context, I guessed that it means "bit rate", but I wonder are these two terms equivalent or not? ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

Why it has used BPSK modulation after OFDM?

I am quite new to OFDM modulation. I am reading this from a tutorial. In one of its parts, for showing amplitude variation of the OFDM signals, there is a graph that has used 8 sub-carriers and BPSK ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What sampling rates will give uncorrelated samples of x(t).considering the mean of the Random Variable 'x' to be zero?

What sampling rates will give uncorrelated samples of x(t) ? Considering the mean of the Random Variable 'x' to be zero. My Thinking: Since the mean of the random variable 'x'is zero,then it will ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

How is CPM Modulation Different from PSK?

Continuous phase modulation has been described to me very similar to wikipedia's definition, which basically indicated that the CPM is different from QPSK, for example, because QPSK abruptly shifts ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

How does SMBus receive byte command protocol know what to send?

Im programming an I2C device to act as a PMBus slave. Looking at the SMBus protocols (which PMBus is built on) the Receive Byte command has a format described as follows: ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

parameter that limits data rate in communication

In communication, the maximum data rate that can be achieved is given by Shannon as C=B*log2(1+SNR) bits/sec. Supposing that I've a very high SNR and an infinite bandwidth, then can data be ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

sampling rate, data rate and bandwidth

I'm new to digital communication. How are the terms data rate and sampling rate related to the term "bandwidth" . Am I missing something here?.Can someone explain me in detail? thanks in advance, ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Group delay when using a matched filter

Supposing I have a discrete time signal x(n). when I pass this through an FIR filter h(n), and again pass this result through h(n) again (essentially this is a second order filtering), the group delay ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

Usage of complex filters in communication

In the last stage of a communication transmitter, at the front end a filter is used to eliminate unwanted signals from other frequencies. As far as I read in literature, are these filters "real" ...
0
votes
3answers
74 views

using C libraries inside verilog

I'm implementing a radio in Verilog. the time taken for bit reversal while computing the FFT is more. it is almost equal to a symbol time (OFDM system). Can I use a FFT library in C, which can be ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

How do data and address strobes cause input to be latched?

Often in digital systems when multiple components communicate with each other they use strobe signals. Among these are data and address strobes. The strobe signal being asserted means that the data or ...
2
votes
2answers
85 views

Circuit to throw out 1st bit of every 17-bit sequence?

I have a system that currently uses two Maxim DS1867 digital potentiometers in a daisy-chain configuration. In a new addition to the system I would like to use a new digital potentiometer part like ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Prove a theorem about an upper bound for entropy of a random vector

There is a theorem that: if Z is any zero-mean, complex random vector with covariance \$E[ZZ^H]=R_z\$, then \$H(Z)\leq \log|{\pi eR_z}|\$, with equality holding if and only if Z has a circularly ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Form of the received signal in a MIMO communication

I am reading an article which is related to MIMO communication networks. Consider that there are \$U\$ users, each of them have \$J_{u}, u=1,...U\$, different layers. We want to calculate the received ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Difference between “user” and “layer”

I am new to multiple access communication theory. I read some articles on LDS, and I thought that "layers" is a term used for "users" (In another language I thought that for example when we say "we ...
4
votes
3answers
167 views

Why interfaces and buses gets faster with every version if they are physically the same?

An interface or computer expansion bus gets faster with every version eg. PCI express 1.0 is 4GB/sm, PCI express 2.0 is 8GB/s, PCI express 3.0 is 16GB/s. I understand that things like microprocessors ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

Spreading vector

I am reading an article that is about CDMA. In that article I encountered a term "spreading vetor". I searched some books such as Proakis and Gallager to see what it means. I even surfed internet for ...
1
vote
3answers
142 views

What exactly does a 10-transistor XOR gate look like?

I need a schematic for a 10-transistor xor gate, I have searched everywhere and I see 8, 12, 6, but I can't see 10. What does it look like in a transistor like picture?
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Would my project be affected by lack of a filter?

I have chosen to do a final project, I will be transmitting bits using a wien bridge oscilator, I want a 160 MHZ sine wave and I have chosen values for it. I have chosen the AD8041 op amp because it ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

RF Solutions ZULU module

I am trying to set up a remote battery voltage checker that will radio the voltage read from the battery to a computer. I went for the ZULU module (by mistake as I should have brought the ZULU-M ...
1
vote
0answers
94 views

Why is “throughput” called “bandwidth”?

But back in school, I had learned that the "bandwidth" of a communication channel is the frequency of the highest-frequency signal minus that of the lowest-frequency signal that it can carry. Yet in ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

How to generate random fading variables using Nakagami-M distributions

I am trying to write my own mat-lab code to generate Nakagami random variables, As we know due to multi-path propagation we have random attenuation and delay. I have a signal coming out and I want ...
14
votes
2answers
158 views

HDMI and I\$^2\$C

I was having a look at the HDMI pinout and I thought: why would they use I\$^2\$C for the display-host communication? My question here is about the design metrics that lead to this choice. HDMI is a ...
2
votes
3answers
131 views

What happens if SINR is < 1?

What happens if the SINR of a signal is less than 1 in a (wireless) network? Is that practical at all to have a SINR < 1? Using the Shannon capacity formula, it seems that we must be able to have ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Is it possible to put one E0 voice signal directly into a STM1 frame

I've been going through STM1 frame structure recently. Is it possible to put a single E0(64kbps) voice channel directly into a stm1 frame or should it be put sequentially into a E1 and then to an E2 ...
1
vote
1answer
247 views

Could anyone explain the two-ray ground-reflection model in plain English

I am studying about wireless communications and I need to understand the two-ray ground-reflection model for one of my assignments. However, I fail to understand it. Could anyone provide a ...
4
votes
3answers
84 views

Laser emitter for serial communications?

I want to build a 2-way serial communications rig using low cost LED lasers. 9600 baud would be ok, but faster speeds would be more useful. (This is purely a hobby project. The further I can establish ...
1
vote
2answers
118 views

Fan in Fan out problem

Fan out is the maximum number of inputs that can be connected to a specific output. Why can’t we connect more number of inputs to this output?
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Signal drawing based on a constellation diagram

Constellation diagram of a communication system is given. S1(t) -> 0, S2(t) -> 1 Φ1 and Φ2 are basis functions and Tb is the bit period. How can I draw S1(t),S2(t) and decision boundaries?
1
vote
1answer
96 views

Quantization levels and SNR

Im' trying to build a big picture of telecommunication and i'm stuck in a topic, related to digital communication. But the problem is that i can't go too deep into the topic because it is imensely ...
0
votes
1answer
136 views

BFSK Modulation Output

I'm having trouble understanding outputs of a BFSK modulator. $$S_1(t) = cos(πt/T)$$ $$S_2(t) = cos(2πt/T)$$ If the input 0 or 1, how can I calculate the output? Edit: There is a formula to ...
2
votes
2answers
103 views

QAM's Demodulation

Let me confirm how the demodulation process of QAM is. $$s(t)=I(t)sin(2πft)+Q(t)cos(2πft)$$ Then we have to guess \$I(t)\$ and \$Q(t)\$ in order to know what the said bit formation of the ...
0
votes
2answers
120 views

SNR vs Signal Strength for digital throughput

I'm trying to compare two antennas, A and B for WiFi. A is showing: Signal Strength of -77dBm, but SNR of 9dB. B is showing: ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Wireless telecom system (cellular with Erlang and spectral efficiency)

We have a spectrum of 20MHz that we will use on a wireless cellular system, which requires 50kHz per channel. The system is using cluster size K = 4 and the radius of every cell is R = 1 km. a) ...
2
votes
2answers
128 views

Can I use this IR Transceiver for communication and obstacle avoidance?

I am building two robots. For communication and obstacle avoidance I am using Infrared. I bought this IR transceiver TFDU4101-TR3 (http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/1675739.pdf)which I thought I could ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

What does “50 ohm system” mean?

I'm looking to use the following switch to switch an SPI bus ( CLK <= 2Mhz) between two different devices. I'm reading the datasheet to see if the the frequency of the signals are going to be ok, ...
0
votes
3answers
96 views

Long distance communication

I am looking for a cheap single wired solution to transfer data of some sensors connected to a uC over a distance of 1 KM from a control room on UART. The data is of 16 bytes, no high speed ...