Ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured, or is a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.

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Measuring the voltage between (positive/negative) terminals of PV cell and ground

I tried to measure the voltage between positive/negative terminals of a PV cell and ground while the cell was exposed to the sun, I found that the voltage decreases with time -the PV cells were ...
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214 views

PCB Layout - Ground Plane Return Path

I am designing a 4 layer PCB with power planes and a ground plane, with mixed voltage signals and high currents. I have two possible isolated ground plane configurations, and I am wondering which ...
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21 views

What do you use for the ground plane of a Patch Antenna?

I am wanting to have a patch antenna printed on a PCB. I already have it designed but I am unsure about the ground plane. Do I just need to have a copper pour on the other side of the board and use ...
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2answers
89 views

Where is Electric ground comes in missiles and rockets using high voltages ?

I may sound silly. I think that the Rocket systems and missiles might be having high power amplifiers and circuits inside them. Then how the Electric ground is accommodated in those kind of circuits. ...
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28 views

Common GND with Buck Modules?

I am creating a LED lighting unit for an Aquarium and I have a 240vAC to 24v DC power supply. I want to output 12V and 5V also in addition to the 24v DC. I have 2 buck modules - like these http://...
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38 views

How do I edit thermals on pads in Eagle?

I have a ground plane and would like to increase the number of gaps in the thermals of a ground pad. I have more than 9 amps running through this ground pad and need to increase contact. It looks ...
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19 views

ESD plug in with battery backup UPS

Is plunging in an ESD strap to a batter backup like a UPS or APC reasonable? I have a simple ESD cable that terminated in a 3 prong wall outlet where only the earth ground prong is metal. There is a ...
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68 views

Multiple source Smartphone charger pack

I am in no means a electrical engineer or student but i dabble. I have a project to make a BIG smartphone charger using multiple 1800mAH batteries. you can choose which cell to use and charge via a ...
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2answers
32 views

GND signals not connecting to Polygon in Eagle

I am designing a board layout in Eagle. Before manual/auto routing, I made a polygon around the corners and named it as GND. Then I used the autorouter for routing. After the routing is complete, ...
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89 views

Does a helicopter battery drain when it is “off” but attached to a battery hot bus?

I'm reading about the DC Power System for a civilian helicopter. It shows the following diagram for when the battery is off: However, it shows that the ...
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63 views

If there is a branch and the two paths lead back to the same ground, will they both recieve power?

I'm using an online circuit simulator found here. When I have a single path through both LEDs, they each illuminate: However, when I add a wire to create a cycle, one of the LEDs loses power: ...
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66 views

I'm seeing AC voltage on a DC power supply

A little bit of context: I'm working on my 3D printer (Kit build, modified) which has an aluminum frame. The main power supply is enclosed in an aluminum housing, which is bolted directly to the ...
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239 views

Add ground earth to a Chinese music player [closed]

I have this Chinese Portable Rechargeable Mp3 player. It has a two pin plug connector behind that is used to recharge it and some generic rechargeable non removable battery inside it. It has the ...
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49 views

Should I let my microprocessor and sensors have floating ground?

For my home automation project, I'll be controlling about 10 mechanical relays, and 5 mosfet switches, ALL OPTICALLY ISOLATED. relays/switches will be controlled by Beaglebone Black(BBB), a 3.3V ...
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83 views

To share or not, grounds of two power supplies

I'm using Arduino to control 2 stepper motors via two l293D drivers. I'm using a separate power supply for the steppers (6V). I'm looking forward to expand the system to 3 up to 10 motors. Now i ...
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59 views

Oscilloscope Probe Noise and Safety

I have a Tektronix 531A tube oscilloscope from the late 50s. I recently bought some 20$ probes and noticed a lot of noise on the 0.005 volt/cm setting when that spring loaded hook attachment was ...
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1k views

Multiple grounds from diode bridge? Safe or really stupid/dangerous?

I am making a hybrid tube preamplifier (one vacuum tube and one op-amp). Both use very different voltages - the tube is getting somewhere about ~150V DC and the op-amp gets ~6V DC. The differences ...
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55 views

4017 Counter LED Shuffle By Touch

Hi all, I found the following circuit on the internet and made it on the back of a business card as a fun project. The idea is that you ask a question, touch the naked wire, the lights shuffle and ...
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80 views

Aluminum sheet as an underlay for electonic equipment

I am planning to build a NAS into a (sufficiently ventilated) closet. For flame protection and heat spreading, I mean to put a 2x700x550mm aluminum sheet under the equipment. Is this a good idea? ...
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72 views

Voltage difference between two individual voltage sources

I have two voltage sources. The first one is 230VAC to 5VDC cell phone battery charger while the another is output from Raspberry Pi's Ground and 3V3 pins. I feed the 5VDC output for an Arduino. What ...
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34 views

audio mixer - is ground isolation needed for each channel?

In every audio mixer schematic that I have found, the signal circuit is described extensively. Here are a few examples: However, these diagrams do not show any considerations for the ground ...
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72 views

USB cables combining shield and power ground conductor

I see a lot of USB "charging" cables on the market with cutaways showing two small data conductors, one large power conductor, and shield. The implication is that power is conducted in the shield. ...
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17 views

Simulated analog narrow band output ground loop

I am using a Wide Band Lambda controller with a simulated analog narrow band output, the controller system must be grounded to the chassis and is also shared with analog common which connects to the ...
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55 views

Input resistor to BJT base > ground resistor, why?

Thank you for your time. I'm new to electronics and so this question might, to you, call for an evident answer. Nevertheless, I can't seem to find that answer. I've stumbled upon a schematic for a ...
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281 views

Does anyone know the history of the earth ground symbol

I Googled for hours, asked every EE professor in my college, then checked every electrical engineering book in my university's library (hours), and have found nothing about the history of the ground ...
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45 views

Connection to ground for a Cat5e Shielded outdoor rated cable

My ISP installed the cable modem in my entertainment room. I am trying to have internet also in my STUDIO with an access point to broadcast a second WIFI from there to other parts of the house. (My ...
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4answers
126 views

Where do these grounding wires go? [duplicate]

In the following schematic the two Vss pins where are supposed to be the grounding pins don't connect to anything. Does this mean that the circuit is self-grounding (if that's even a thing)? I'm ...
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169 views

I always thought that bodies of water were ground

I always thought that bodies of water were ground, meaning that any electric voltage that meets a lake for example would be immediately become grounded and the voltage would be that of the earth, in ...
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61 views

Varistors set to ground or case by isolated ground/case

I have a isolated ground from the case in my device. The Supply Voltage is +24VDC with Ground and separated CASE, so no safety issues. On any signals coming from the case (Plugs) I put varistors, but ...
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89 views

How to calculate the earth fault current in a transmission system with no ground wire?

Background information, and my thought on the matter are provided in the end of the question. I need to calculate the fault current in case a fault occur for instance 10 km away from a transformer ...
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81 views

Hot & neutral have similar voltage to ground: Finding the problem Part 2

I accepted an answer to a similar question recently, but I now have additional information and have realized that I need a more specific answer. I am nearly certain that my landlord will be unhappy ...
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40 views

How to make multiple GND pours in Altium?

I have a PCB design that requires two ground pours on the bottom layer, one is AGND and the other is DGND. Most of the board is AGND ('L' shape) and the remaining should be DGND. I have tried to pour ...
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44 views

Is dual power supply's ground coupled?

I am using a dual power supply model CPX200 from TTI in my school lab, and I am trying use it to supply 1.8V and 3.3V to a PCB, so I figured it was a good idea to check whether the ground of the dual ...
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46 views

External whip 868MHz Antenna via coaxial cable. Ground Issues

I have a RF module that works at 868MHz.It works as transmitter and as receiver. (lambda:0.345m lambda/4=8.64cm). The RF module ground plane (GND_PCB) is 10x10cm, so bigger than lambda/4. By default, ...
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41 views

Oscilloscope builds charge on ground even when it is connected to mains ground

I have a following situation - my scope (UT4102C if that matters) builds some charge (quite painful to touch) on its ground (BNC connectors outer hull) even when it is connected via proper IEC cable ...
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3answers
89 views

Are capacitors floating power supplies?

I'm struggling with the concept of floating voltages. For a grounded supply I can connect one side to an effectively infinite ground and get full power. It may vary depending on its construction, ...
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59 views

Practical differences between putting circuit complexity on the ground side vs the hot side

I'm wiring some computer fans behind the fridge in my camper-van to help increase ventilation. As part of this circuit, I have a temperature controlling microcontroller plus relay and a series of SPDT ...
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1answer
78 views

Ripple flowing through probes connected to the same point!

While trying to filter the ripple of my switching PSU, I've come to a phenomenon that is probably well known to professionals, but seems absurd to me. Admittedly, my scope is not of the highest ...
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65 views

I/O card couples analogue ground to 0V - how can I work around this?

I'm building a system that has to measure analogue voltages accurately. This system is being tested using PC-based test equipment that has an expansion card in it generating both digital and analogue ...
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68 views

How to detect pin state change in pulled up pins

I am working on Toradex module and developing a simple application where I am detecting the input and displaying it on UART. Now the application requirement is that we give 12v as input but the ...
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4answers
441 views

How does grounding the circuit provides safety?

I don't understand the concept of grounding a circuit for safety reasons, in this circuit that i simulated, imagine my hand touching the circuit as the closed switch. I am creating a closed loop ...
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1answer
90 views

Altium - How do I place my GND vias?

I have a 4 layer design, Top, layer2, layer3, bottom. Now I want to place GND vias on a ground polygon. Layers Top and Bottom both are a complete ground plane (Polygon) I was wondering; What is the ...
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2answers
348 views

what is a ground? [duplicate]

I have a basic question about electronic ground. For example, if electrons travel from the DC battery's negative terminal through the conductive wire to the positive terminal of a DC battery with a ...
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1answer
75 views

Cons or pros related to connecting analogue and digital grounds together using a ferrite or inductor

I'm designing a signal acquisition system with an ADC. I have these questions: 1- Any cons or pros related to connecting the analogue and digital planes using ferrites or inductors. Or should I just ...
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1answer
86 views

Is it good practice to couple the grounds of isolated supplies with capacitors

I once saw the following on an isolated dc/dc converter data sheet and have been doing it ever since with my dc/dc converters, but I wanted to ask to make sure it actually makes sense. Whenever I ...
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4answers
139 views

What do these dashed/dotted lines mean in this power cord schematic, and how should I ground this device?

--Edited at Sparky256's suggestion for better clarity-- Background Information I'm making a power cable for a piece of obscure, surplus military equipment (an AN/UGC-74B teletype, to be precise). I ...
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4answers
236 views

How does ground mains work?

When I studied how AC mains power works, I learned that one of the wires is connected to the ground or a body of water so that it can get back to the power station. The concept baffles me. Every ...
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51 views

External Power Supply Grounding Scheme

The following are two possible grounding schemes for a sensitive instrument that contains high gain analog circuits and potentially noisey digital circuits: This circuit is connected to an external ...
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163 views

Pulling the circuit's voltage to the ground with grounded probe

When measuring a point on an isolated circuit board with my grounded oscilloscope, I fear my oscilloscope ground will pull the measured point to ground level but this has never happened, I am always ...
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66 views

Return Path of Bypass Capacitor in a PCB with 2 Grounds

I have a PCB with two power rails, 5V and 12V, and two ground pours, GND-5V and GND-12V, respectively. The two ground pours are tied at one point (close to the connector). I'm powering a DAC off the ...