Ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured, or is a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.

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Current Leakage calculations regarding shock hazard. A complete picture?

There is a quantity called current leakage which has always confused me. By reading various definitions, it seems to be the current flowing through the ground circuit of a device (whether this be an ...
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32 views

Connecting devices powered by separate SMPS without common ground

I have a power over Ethernet design using the SI3402 PoE PD chip to generate 3.3v for a pic 18F67J60. The switched mode voltage converter in the SI3402 is a little unorthodox in that it switches Vss ...
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3answers
75 views

What does short to ground mean? How to do that?

I've just started a simple project using raspberrypi and a capacitive touch sensors breakout board. I had a few problems using I2C, but after some time of research I managed to get stuck on one ...
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1answer
108 views

Floating supply and USB ground

I have a somewhat complex circuit controlled by an Arduino, which is supplied by a self powered USB hub (earth grounded 5V supply). A part of the circuit has to be powered by 12-20V DC. When I plug ...
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59 views

Can we consider that ethernet or RS-232 (RS-485) networks have no ground connection between the two ends of each cable?

This is for a huge home theater. I have a power transformer that converts 380VAC between two legs of a 3-phase power system down to 230VAC, with a center-tap of the secondary being our "neutral" for ...
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689 views

Outlets not grounded? Remedy? [migrated]

For some months, I'm renting an apartment in the Canary Islands. It looks like the plugs are not grounded. For example, when I connect my laptop, a ThinkPad T420si, then I feel an unpleasant sensation ...
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38 views

Switching Power Supply makes speakers hiss

I have a computer with a 5.1 soundcard, that I'm using to run a standard PC 2.1 setup (Corsair SP2500) on the main audio output, and two rear surround speakers I had laying around. The speakers in ...
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1answer
78 views

Power Mosfet design issue

My schematic The components BSN20 is a N-channel enhancement mode field-effect transistor (datasheet) IRF7416 is a HEXFET power MOSFET (datasheet) This is a part of a project in which the line ...
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48 views

Voltages with an earth ground

In this diagram, from what I understand the voltage between the positive terminal and the first earth ground is \$ 0V \$ and the voltage between the negative terminal and the earth ground is \$ 0V ...
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6answers
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Why is the chassis used as ground in automotive electrical circuits

Automotive electronics generally use the metal chassis as the negative ground connector for the DC circuits. Obviously this saves something on wiring. Is there an electrical reason for this approach? ...
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45 views

Connecting grounds of a disconnected power source?

Background: I'm designing a portable appliance (24 DC, ~30 amps, air conditioner) and need to have a switchable power source between vehicle-supplied power (alternator) and a separate dedicated ...
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1answer
73 views

Noisy Voltage Rails (Vcc, Gnd) - Noise Isolation for Automotive Circuit

I have an audio (mic, speaker) circuit that I am currently powering off of a 12V car adapter that is fed into a 10V switching DC regulator to power the rest of the circuit. I have noticed a horrendous ...
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46 views

Setting the absolute potential of an isolated DC power supply

I have a circuit that, for reasons out of my control, is powered by an bipolar +/-4V supply. This circuit includes instrumentation amplifiers and so forth that have input headroom requirements of over ...
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0answers
56 views

Bypass caps in multi stage op-amp with virtual ground

This question concerns op-amp bypassing, "following the currents", and how multi-stage coupling affects bypassing. Let me give credit to the knowledge already gleamed from this post, which deals with ...
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2answers
275 views

PCB's and designing power connections

I've designed a few PCB's now, but never put much thought into good practices. They were small boards and most of the emphasis was put into just making sure everything that needed to be connected was ...
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2answers
112 views

Does a circuit going into an Arduino pin/GND need a resistor? [closed]

If a circuit goes into an Arduino pin, even the GND pin, but does not use something a component that needs a resistor such as an LED, does it still need a resistor for the Arduino pin? Edit: To clear ...
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4answers
468 views

How should I connect AGND and DGND

I have been reading about grounding in a mixed signal systems. Do I get it correct that it is best to group analog and digital elements and then have a single ground plane, as long as the digital ...
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37 views

triac DC ground and AC live

In this example of using a 3Q triac, could the AC voltage flow into the DC terminal?
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4answers
848 views

Reason of multiple GND and VCC on an IC

What is the reason that most of ICs (e.g. MCU) has multiple (A/D)GND and (A)VCC pins? If it is to increase performance of an IC, how does it help to performance? or is it easier for the IC designer ...
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73 views

How to reduce objects/hands impact on PCB antenna efficiency

I am trying to learn about planar inverted F antennas creation and have designed two different designs for two different frequencies with success. One seems pretty much unaffected by the proximity of ...
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1answer
122 views

Does the ground line in a DC circuit carries current?

I'm confused a little bit about whether or not a DC return line carries any current. the reason is that in our design we have 2 batteries 24V and 8V, they supply ~4A and ~2A respectively to different ...
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1answer
64 views

Suppressing BLDC Motor noise? Is it radiated or a grounding issue? [closed]

I have a BLDC motor that rotates an imaging assembly(ultrasound) and alot of PWM noise can be seen in the resultant image produced. If I play around with the RX line that carries the imaging signal ...
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45 views

How to fix current leakage in a laptop at the mains? [closed]

See this previous question: current leakage in a laptop Kind of reopening this case, I expect that some fix at the power supply side would fix this, like connecting the neutral with the ground, OR ...
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4answers
240 views

What is an appropiate way to isolate a DC signal?

The question might sound kind of funny, but I'm unsure how else to word it. So... Pictures!! Currently, I have a setup like this: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using ...
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147 views

Oscilloscope ground and unit under test ground issue

I am working with an instrument which has a supply of 230V AC or 400V DC. AC source is isolated at the input via 1:1 transformer and DC source is a floating supply. I have a Yokogowa DL1620 ...
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2answers
282 views

“Ground” vs. “Earth” vs. common vs. negative terminal

This may just be me not having a degree in electrical engineering or electronics, but the whole notion of "ground" and "earth", when used in electrical circuit diagrams (especially integrated ...
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123 views

Understanding ground symbol

If ground is a reference point and it is not physically connected how can it protect someone touching the wire from electric shock (I probably misunderstand what that symbol really means)
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93 views

grounding 2 different power supplies

I have 2 circuit boards I'm trying to connect together that each have a common 24 VAC source they are connected to. The problem I have is I'm trying to feed a switching 12 VDC signal to the one board ...
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1answer
98 views

When an isolation transformer is not enough? [closed]

I work for a fairly large church and we have powered line array speakers that do not have attenuators in them. Over time a ground loop occurred from the stage lighting causing a very distracting ...
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1answer
194 views

Is the ground really the ground? [duplicate]

I've always been too embarrassed too ask, but the notion of "ground" has always puzzled me. The way I understand it, in theory, is that the earth acts as a giant sink/pool of electron and thus will ...
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3answers
142 views

How does a “break” in the neutral wire enable it to reach the full line voltage?

The answer to Is the neutral wire considered safe? states: When everything is working correctly, it should be at most a few volts from ground. However, and this is the big gotcha, if there is a ...
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0answers
62 views

Ground loops on single trace in the middle of a ground plane

I'm trying to optimize the layout of a MAX1979 TEC driver on a double sided PCB. Is the placement of single, small traces in the middle of a ground place, as seen below on the bottom side of the ...
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1answer
18 views

PCM4202 AGNDL/AGNDR connection

First, sorry if my english is not perfect. I have a question regarding AGNDL and AGNDR connectiof for PCM4202 . In the data sheet document ( figure 12, page 21) the decoupling caps are not connected ...
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3answers
179 views

Grounding a capacitor?

Noobish question. I'm trying to make a dc variable voltage power supply. I will include the schematic which I am trying to build. In the schematic there are two 1000 uf capacitors which I believe are ...
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1answer
45 views

Why a ground loop a problem, not a ground plane(patch attena)?

The question is as the title says: I see various material saying using a solid ground plane. Why would not that be a problem, since a solid ground plane could be a patch antenna?
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149 views

Differential ADC input buffer

I am trying to make 10Mohm of input impedance into a ADC (CS5530). I am planing to use differential input buffer to ADC so I am trying to use TI's document as reference. I tried the one differential ...
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1answer
114 views

Proper PCB grounding with several general purpose ICs

I'm designing a general purpose Arduino shield pcb and right now I'm struggling to find a proper ground layout. ICs on the board: 12->5V and 12->10V @5A switching DCregulators, several H-Bridge motor ...
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1answer
164 views

Why are the ground and neutral bonded in my panel?

I took a look inside my panel today and saw a big green wire connected to the neutral bus bar. Why are these two bonded together? Why not just send the neutral back where it came from? Where does the ...
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38 views

Current Return Path for Plasma Experiment

I'm planning to use an old non-GFI neon transformer to produce plasma for some research I'm conducting. However, the neon transformer is center-tapped which complicates diagnostics (such as ground ...
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3answers
100 views

Separating Digital GND from Analog GND

I'm connecting CdS photoresitor and ADC (MCP3204) to the RPi. And MCP has DGND and AGND. I am about to connect both GNDs to the GND on RPi's GPIO, naively. Is that problematic if I want to read the ...
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136 views

How is Ground in a Power Supply made?

I've been using different power supplies for 6 years. But, I'm unable to understand how we make ground in a Power supply? Or from where does this ground come? Or from where does this reference ground ...
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1answer
89 views

Removing neon transformer center tap?

I have recently acquired an old neon transformer (rated 12kV) for conducting some low temperature plasma experiments. It is the mid-point grounded style with a center tap on the secondary coil. I had ...
0
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1answer
124 views

Buffering Input Signal - Op Amp Alternatives

I need to buffer a 0-5V signal that is coming from a resistor network and being fed into an IC. When I feed it directly to the IC there is a loading effect and the value is changed specifically at 0V ...
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3answers
121 views

How to deal with grounding and the capacitors in this opamp schematic?

Here is a schematic I'm planning to make (right click on the image and 'open image in new tab' to see it better'): I have a transformer and AC to DC converter that makes +/-12V. (1) Does 'power ...
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1answer
90 views

How to implement grounding into this electrical circuit?

I'm trying to make some tutorials but I have no idea what should I do when I see the term ground (GND). Here is an example: I want to know how I build the GND part. Where I connect it? Also, if ...
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2answers
85 views

Can ungrounded power line damage computer components & networking devices? [closed]

I live in a rented house and it's electrical wiring doesn't have a ground line. I'm using 3-pin plugs with 2-pin converter. I have desktop computers, laptops, wireless routers, network switches etc ...
2
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1answer
146 views

What were to happen if I short-circuited electricity generated by a power plant to the Earth?

I'm not sure how to word this better, so I hope this makes sense. Let's say theoretically that I connected a cable from the hot side of the power lines that run along the road to a stake in the ...
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1answer
75 views

Patch antenna ground plane

I am designing a four layer board in which a patch antenna is used for a GPS receiver.The antenna's feed is a through hole and reaches the bottom of board, where it meets a 50 ohm transmission ...
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3answers
122 views

Grounding between enclosures in a closed system

Currently we are developing enclosures in an isolated "system of systems". Our overall system is fed AC power and converted to 28V with an off-the-shelf converter. Currently the enclosures we are ...
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3answers
114 views

Ground vs Power Ground

In the MAX1979 datasheet, I see two types of ground specified, analog and power ground. My question is: what exactly is the difference between these grounds (noise? if so, which is noisier?), and more ...