Something put into a system or expended in its operation to achieve output or a result

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5
votes
2answers
256 views

Is there a way to find the transfer function from only your input and the steady state response?

I know that a transfer function has the general form of $$ G(S) = Y(S)/U(S) $$ where \$Y(S)\$ is the output and \$U(S)\$ is the input. However, if given the output \$u(t)\$ and the steady state ...
0
votes
0answers
76 views

PSpice gives a crazy plot

I am simulating the following circuit The input voltage is a PWL voltage source that I configured to get a unit impulse input. From Matlab I know I am supposed to get this response But this is ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Pull up resistor on Schmitt trigger IC input?

I have two different circuits on two different boards. The output of board A, let's say, is optocoupler based and hence, it has a pull up on it. This signal is connected to board B through an ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Input sensing level of STM32F0 microcontroller

I am trying to work with PS/2 protocol. It gives 5V as data '1'. Voltage level of stm32f0 is 3.3V. I am trying to take 5V from PS/2 protocol as input. But whenever I am trying that, it shows nothing. ...
2
votes
3answers
238 views

Why do we need bulky filters at the input stage of SMPS designs?

I usually see costly and large filters at the input stage of switch mode power supplies. Isn't the AC signal already filtered by the large capacitor (the 100\$\mu\$F one in this example) after the ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

Verilog data input

Hello I am relatively new to verilog and need help on part of a project am working on. I need someone to guide me as to how you read data from an analog device. I bought an analog temperature sensor ...
0
votes
4answers
86 views

Can an opto-isolated input be analog?

Title says it all: can an opto-isolated input be analog or are they intrinsically digital? Why: I am looking to purchase a relay control board and am deciding between a few options. Here is my ...
0
votes
3answers
117 views

What are the mechanisms at work in a pull-up or pull-down resistor circuits with a push-buttons and a GPIO?

I have a question regarding the GPIO (from a Arduino board for example). How does it work exactly when you use it as an input pin? What are the mechanisms at work when you use it in a pull-up and ...
0
votes
1answer
76 views

24 volt on microprocessor input pin

I have got my hands on a Intel Edison system on chip. I would like to use it to detect non-zero voltage. For example I have a test point that could be either 0 volt or 24 volt and I want to detect ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Transfer function of a real opamp circuit

I know how to calculate the transfer function of an ideal opamp. But when calculating for a real opamp, should I use the Input Bias Current values specified in the ...
1
vote
0answers
66 views

Differences between MIPI-CSI1 and MIPI-CSI2

I'm trying to find what makes a difference between MIPI-CSI1 and MIPI-CSI2. From what I understand on this specifications document, they both work the same way, except that MIPI-CSI2 offers up to ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

ESD protection for pH measurement electrode input

I want to puild a pH meter, which uses a normal glass electrode. Such an electrode behaves as a pH dependend voltage source (<+-500mV) with very high internal resistance (10MOhm - 1GOhm, depending ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

When setting pin as input it getts pulled high, why?

I've hooked up a push button to GP1 and a LED to GP2 on my PIC12F683 and this is my code: ...
1
vote
2answers
90 views

How does one implement the following function with these tools provided?

Suppose I have a function defined as follows, such that it is expressed in POS form, with the product of the following max terms of 4 variables (A,B,C,D): 0,3,4,7,9,10,12,15 and I only have a 4 to 1 ...
-1
votes
1answer
80 views

Input 5V 100mA, output 200mA

I am new to electronics. I have come across a problem which I face. Will need some advice from here, as I am a student and would like to know: is there any way I can increase current in a circle. ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Input protection with MAX366 exhibits very slow falling edge. Why?

I'm using the following circuitry to protect my microcontroller input pin from the dangers of the bad and ugly outside world (a trigger signal coming from an unknown source). The signal comes in from ...
0
votes
2answers
82 views

Phototelectric smoke sensor with microcontroller

I am trying to connect a photoelectric smoke sensor with Atmega328. The smoke sensor IC has pin 7 as the I/O pin which gives a 9V when smoke is detected. I have connected this pin to the input pin of ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Understanding the input specifications for a laptop adapter [closed]

The sticker on my laptop adapter claims the input should be INPUT: 100-240V~ 2.5A(2,5A) 50-60Hz What does all this mean? Here are a couple specific questions: Can the adapter accept anywhere ...
1
vote
0answers
106 views

Should my external analog input be isolated?

I want to build a device that samples analog signals from various measurement instruments via their analog outputs. The instruments have their own power supply, and all devices are powered from the ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

What is the use of dual differential amplifiers in audio applications?

Why do audio amplifiers use dual differential pairs sometimes? Is there a mathematical justification and not just "the joy of symmetry"? Any hints, especially with some math would be of great help. ...
2
votes
3answers
276 views

What kind of metal are the legs of resistors made from?

Can anyone tell me what kind of metal is used in electronics to make wires going in/out to the elements? Can longer of this metal wire be found anywhere? Actually I am looking for sth like copper wire ...
0
votes
3answers
83 views

How should a SPDT switch be wired for a digital input?

I want to connect a switch to a digital input on a logic board and make it so that the input goes high when the switch is pressed. I'll be using a SPDT switch: Should I connect the digital input to ...
1
vote
2answers
73 views

Need an extra pin to control my driver board

I've been searching for a way to add an extra pin to a driver board. The MCU board that i'm using only has 8 pins on the left side and i'm already using all of them. 2 are for powering the driver and ...
0
votes
2answers
122 views

Inputs to a Wiimote using a microcontroller

I've seen various methods of grabbing inputs and sensor data from Wiimotes and Wii Nunchuks as standard Bluetooth HIDs into microcontrollers like the Arduinos, but is there a way of sending button ...
2
votes
2answers
94 views

What is the difference between digital input with low bias and digital input with high bias?

I have 3 inputs. Input #1 is low bias. I can hook up a 12V positive to input 1 and it will change it's state to 1 (or input is ON). Inputs #2 and #3 are high bias. Connecting a 12VDC to either of ...
1
vote
2answers
169 views

Invert PWM input with NOT gate

What practical advantages could there be in using a logic NOT gate IC (e. g. schmit trigger hex inverters) when compared to a simple NMOS + pull-up resistor inverter? I want to invert the PWM output ...
1
vote
1answer
188 views

How can I detect an open analog input pin?

Many of the Renesas micros have built-in support to precharge or discharge the sampling cap on analog inputs to be able to detect when the external circuit is disconnected. In the sample image, when ...
1
vote
6answers
189 views

Why is pin protection needed?

I have read this article about protecting input pins. One thing is still unclear to me — why is the protection needed at all with such a high resistance on the input pin inside of the ...
1
vote
2answers
90 views

How to create a circuit to reduce my H-Bridge Inputs from 4 to 2, much like the 4427 Dual Driver does?

My H-bridge is identical to the one here: http://www.robotroom.com/BipolarHBridge2.html I'm trying to reduce the number of inputs from 4-2 so I can control it with my arduino using the 2 inputs. In ...
0
votes
3answers
117 views

Custom PC input peripheral

I would like to somehow plug an extra button to my computer that when pressed would execute some shell script. Backstory: I'm a programmer and I very much wish I had a big red button to commence the ...
1
vote
2answers
482 views

Atmel Xmega ADC input voltage range - Can the ADC be damaged by exceeding it's reference voltage, if the input is still less then VCC?

I've been working with Atmels ATxmega parts a lot recently, and there is one question I still have that I have not been able to find a answer to, even after scouring the datasheets. Basically, The ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

How to work out or calculate this circuit?

I'm not an engineer, I understand a lot but I fail to understand how it works and how to calculate this for a 24vdc input:
2
votes
1answer
125 views

dsPIC 33EP128MC506 will not read RB8, appears to be software problem

I'm using a dsPIC 33EP128MC506. I have two PCBs with this chip, both displaying the same symptoms, implying it's not one-off damage. RB8 is definitely being driven to 3.3 volts, confirmed with a ...
1
vote
2answers
129 views

dsPIC 30F6012A will not read RD9, appears to be software problem

I'm using a dsPIC 30F6012A. I have two PCBs with this chip, both displaying the same symptoms, implying it's not one-off damage. RD9 is definitely being driven to five volts, confirmed with a ...
2
votes
1answer
202 views

Utility of two pins requiring same voltage

I have a LED backlight driver, which has input pin assignment as: Pin Function 1,2 12V Input 3 Brightness control PWM : 100Hz~20KHz DC : 0.5V~2.5V 4,6 ...
1
vote
1answer
200 views

Whats the name of a BMW iDrive type of encoder? [closed]

I am looking for a component that some people call a 7 way encoder switch. Basically, if you look at the center piece of the BMW iDrive, its that. It's a knob looking piece that if you turn to the ...
1
vote
1answer
237 views

Voltage detection / Universal uC Input => CLD, PTC

I'm currently developing a open-source "Home-PLC" for home automation. Every thing runs fine so far and I have a module with fixed voltage AC inputs and outputs. In the next step I want the build ...
1
vote
1answer
266 views

Arduino all input pins same value

Here's the situation: I have an Arduino mega 2560 and I'm trying to analogRead from 2 different pins. code: ...
4
votes
2answers
121 views

What is the use for non-inverting input resistance in a negative feedback opamp?

Here in the Figure R5=50K. This resistor value is not in the equations to obtain output voltage, and in many tutorials non-inverting input is directly grounded without a resistor. What might be the ...
3
votes
1answer
797 views

Problem Reading PIC18F4550 Input

Hi I am facing some problem with Reading the input from a PIC18f4550 , for a simple arrangement where when a switch on (switch = 1), few led should glow., and on releasing the switch the led should go ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

PIC - How to skirt around low maximum ADC input impedance?

Reading a 9V battery on a PIC is nothing new. The most simple and straightforward way is with a voltage divider. I'd like to keep the divider resistances cranked up into the hundreds of kohms so I'm ...
2
votes
1answer
528 views

Recommended voltage/current for dry contact input?

What would be a reasonable value for voltage and max current to used in conjunction with a remote dry contact output so that it can return to my MCU (through isolator)? I plan on using this input for ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Differential Voltage Range vs. Clipping Level

The data sheet for the AD835 analog multiplier mentions that its inputs have a "Differential Voltage Range" of ±1V and a "Differential Clipping Level" of at least ±1.2V (typ. ±1.4V). What is the ...
4
votes
1answer
293 views

ATtiny45 pin change interrupt PB5?

On the ATTiny45 data sheets it states that PB5 can be used as a digital IO pin and I want to use it to trigger a pin change interrupt, my only issue is that it is also the reset pin and the moment I ...
2
votes
2answers
125 views

How can I get this to not read an arduino digital input?

I have been working on this for a while. It is a small part of a much bigger code. I have a digital input pin connected to a on/off switch and another input pin connected to a momentary push button. ...
3
votes
2answers
179 views

What does it mean for an input impedance to be “differential”?

In a specs of a data acq. device the input impedance is shown as "20 MΩ differential". Does that mean the measured impedance in diff input case? If so how can I calculate the input impedance for ...
1
vote
1answer
138 views

PIC (16F627A) inverted inputs

I'm having problem with inputs of my PIC. There is somethink like "default value" on all inputs set to logical 1 so if I want to change the state I need to pass GND. How can I turn it "otherwise"? ...
3
votes
1answer
538 views

Digital input ports of the dsPIC30F4011/4013 not working on the dsPICDEM 2 Development Board

I have a Microchip dsPICDEM 2 Development Board with two microcontrollers on it: a dsPIC30F4011 (Motor Control Family) and a dsPIC30F4013 (General Purpose Family). I'm programming in C using the MPLAB ...
1
vote
0answers
114 views

ADC Input Stage Impedance

I plan to use the TI ADS1178 (datasheet) ADC. The ADC specifies a "Differential Input Impedance" = 140kOhms (low-power mode). Would this input impedance be the same for single ended inputs when using ...
3
votes
2answers
263 views

How to limit negative voltage on uC input pin

I'm trying to design a pulse induction metal detector to increase my EE skills a little bit. I started to sketch out the transmitting stage, which is just a MOSFET that switches current through a ...