An integrated circuit (IC) is an electronic circuit built onto a single plate of a semiconductor material, normally silicon. Modern ICs may contain billions of transistors and they have played a major part in the miniaturization and performance improvements of modern electronic systems.

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Replace hybrid-pi model with proposed Thevenin model

This lecture (page 10) shows how to replace hybrid-pi model with proposed Thevenin model. Could you tell me how to calculate \$A_{v}\$ to get the result as in the page?
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1answer
43 views

Sine wave to square wave

I have a project that involves deriving a square wave from sine wave at high frequencies, so how can I convert a sine wave to square wave at MHz frequencies? I want a circuit using an op amp that can ...
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1answer
31 views

Passive Cell Balancing of an 2S3P Battery Pack

I'm currently attempting to design a passive cell balancer for a 2S3P battery pack (pictured below). Being new to power engineering I'm not sure where to start looking; I know I want to go with a "...
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3answers
51 views

Open circuit resistance in common gate amplifier

I am reading about common gate amplifier on this page and there is a small signal model that I am a bit confused. The common gate amplifier and its small signal model is shown below. As you can see ...
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1answer
39 views

74HC4046 VCO sensitivity

I am currently working with 74HC4046 IC. I want to know (calculate) what is the VCO sensitivity (in Hz/V) when Phase Detector 1 is used. I have the datasheet but I am not sure how to make the ...
2
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1answer
73 views

Could anyone tell me what is the usage of the circuit within the red frame

The whole circuit is used for measuring voltage, but I am wondering what is the usage the circuit of the red section and how to analysis it? could anybody offer me some anlysis? Pleas ignore some ...
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1answer
46 views

Choosing differential receiver IC?

I have a differential signal A which I would like to convert to LVTTL output X as follows: X = 1 iff A+ > A- + 50 mV. That is to say, X is '1' only when A+ is more than 50 mV greater than A-. ...
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1answer
34 views

LM1496 maximum input voltage

one last question like that. I have the LM1496. The datasheet says that the maximum input voltage is 5V. DATASHEET The question is why is this true? What determines these 5V limit? Thank you!
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1answer
48 views

High current motor control

When designing for relatively high currents, e.g. 6-10A, what is the standard practice for motor control? Is it to construct an H-bridge out of discrete components, to use integrated half bridges, or ...
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0answers
58 views

RS 422 signal voltage booster

I have RS422 output signal with 2.6V peak to peak, However after distance 25 meter this signal voltage is attenuated upto 0.8V and receiver is not able to detect signal. Is there any IC for boost this ...
3
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3answers
148 views

Why filter through hardware?

I am trying to measure a signal with a voltage amplitude between 10-100 microvolts and a frequency between 7-30Hz. The guide I am following suggests filtering out 60Hz noise using a notch filter, as ...
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0answers
56 views

Why does the collector current direction remain the same in saturation and active region?

The collector current direction remains same in both active and saturation state where the former puts the base collector junction reverse biased and the latter puts the base collector junction ...
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2answers
84 views

Identify the change in switch states using a single wire system

Say I have 10 switches which will be automatically tripped at any time. The switches are supplied with the constant voltage(Say 5v). So the conventional way for identifying the trip is by connecting ...
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3answers
134 views

Why is saturation region called so in BJT characteristics?

I understand base-collector (current) linear relationship is lost in saturation region and collector current will be lesser than \$ \beta * Ib \$ . Hence,at max, we can call such a region as non-...
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2answers
76 views

Charge pump circuit with one MOSFET

This is an example of charge pump from MOSFET Models for SPICE Simulation: Including BSIM3v3 and BSIM4 by William Liu. Could anyone explain why \$ v_D = \frac{(v_{IN} - V_T)}{2} \$ here? Why \$ V_T \...
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1answer
40 views

What is the terminology used for a (few)-bit permanent memory latch?

I would need a one bit permanent memory. With permanent, I mean able to maintain it value across power reset. Something like ...
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1answer
23 views

Low current to HS gate drive in DRV8825 typical application diagram

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab The typical application diagram in the DRV8825 stepper driver datasheet includes a 1MOhm resistor from VM(the motor voltage) to VCP(...
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2answers
60 views

PMOS carrying more current than NMOS?

I dont know what is happening here. Both PMOS and NMOS have W=100*270nm L=180nm Vgs=1.8v vds=1.8v while NMOS is carrying only 14.19mA current, How can PMOS carry 15.97mA for the same size and ...
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2answers
48 views

how broad is the term “chipset”? [closed]

Can I use the term "chipset supplier" to refer generically to companies that provide packaged semiconductor chips? Or, should "chipset" only be used to describe companies that manufacture a set of ...
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1answer
98 views

Calculating the power supplied by the current and voltage sources

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I have attended one exam where I was asked to solve this Question. Generally the Power is nothing but the product of current and ...
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1answer
52 views

Is there an IC that works like a queue for binary, serial data (like a shift register)?

Is there an IC that works like a queue for binary, serial data? I have searched a few sites for an IC like this, but I have no idea what the name of this IC would be. Here is a basic description of ...
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1answer
45 views

Bosch BNO055 gyroscope bias stability

What is the bias stability in degrees/hour of the gyroscope on the BNO055? The datasheet lists some specs of the gyro on page #14 but I cant find the bias there. There is an item called "output noise"...
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1answer
37 views

CMOS 4000 series postfix meaning: BCL, BCP, BD

I am simulating a digital circuit and I need to use a CMOS inverter 4009. There are three of them with different postfixes: 4009BCL 4009BCP 4009BD What are the differences between BCL and BCP and ...
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2answers
37 views

Square wave filtering with d-flip flop

I have a square wave (1st line), I want to skip every odd impulse, and output every even one without change, as shown in the second line. Is this different from frequency division? What is the ...
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1answer
65 views

Does a DDR RAM device exist which would allow RAM to be removed and preserved? [closed]

Hello I would like to know if there any device which could preserve content of RAM once removed from a host system and this special device could be connected perhaps by way of USB to another machine ...
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2answers
89 views

How can a manufacturer verify a circuit design? [closed]

Could anyone tell me what means (other than reversing) available to manufacturer of integrated circuits (latest Intel PC CPU's) that would allow them to verify that the actual design on die is ...
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2answers
65 views

Why MOS transconductance is not zero even when drain current is constant?

I am trying to plot transconductance \$ g_m \$ of the MOSFET below when \$ V_{gs} \$ varies from 0 to 1.8V. The schematic is below. The drain current is fixed to a constant DC value 1uA by a current ...
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1answer
29 views

Derivation of transcondutance gm using Taylor expansion

From the fist page of the lecture, there is a derivation of transconductance of MOSFET using Taylor expansion. As seen from the picture bellow, drain current is a function of vGS, vDS and vBS. iD is ...
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0answers
39 views

meaning of bits in micro controller [duplicate]

I just started learning about arduino and read it is a 8 bit micro controller. So what does it mean when we say a micro controller is 8 bit or 16 bit or 32 bit?
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1answer
46 views

How does high-level assembly instruction get translated into low-level logical gate behaviors? [closed]

(Pardon me if this is not the best place for such question. I searched a bit but no better place found.) I learned both assembly language and basic digital circuit design back in college. But after ...
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0answers
29 views

L293D calculate output current

How to calculate the output current of an L293D H-Bridge driver, given the input voltages in both A and B input terminals, an enable voltage and Vcc? How should the schematic be analyzed in terms ...
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3answers
29 views

Multiple Demultiplexers In Series

Basically I need some demultiplexers to switch between 24 outputs. The data inputs would be connected to counters for the addresses. I'm currently using 74ls138 3-8 line demultiplexers. Is this ...
3
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2answers
37 views

How are the circuits and design considerations for opamps and comparators different, at an integrated transistor level?

I've designed various transconductance and operational amplifiers in CMOS technologies in the past. I've also worked with clocked latching comparators. However, I've yet to design an asynchronous ...
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0answers
26 views

VLSI and Carry save adder (CSA) and multiple operand addition?

I read this PPT on page 146 we have this figure: as Better to have the same sum and carry delays (both contribute to critical path) in Carry save adder (CSA) and multiple operand addition. ...
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1answer
57 views

ACS712 Low Current Sensor

Before I begin, just to let you know that I'm new to electrical engineering, in case that my question sound weird to you, but here's my problem. I bought few days ago ACS712 Low Current Sensor and ...
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3answers
61 views

Gain vs Output Impedence

I am currently trying to improve my understanding of analogue IC design and my textbook kind of brushes over this problem. It is made quite clear that a low output impedance is desired so that the ...
3
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2answers
228 views

US5881 Hall Effect sensor not detecting AC field

Yesterday I was disappointed to learn there is no magical IC to measure current flow in a standard appliance cord. On the advice I received, I went ahead with a US5881 Hall effect sensor and split ...
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2answers
46 views

The current use of simple logic gates [closed]

I have been learning about digital electronics and playing with some simple integrated circuits like the 7400 series. The 7400 chip, for example, has four NAND gates and I understand some of the uses ...
0
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2answers
132 views

simple IC for on-off current detection?

I am trying to identify an IC that can sit in proximity to an appliance power cord (120VAC) and simply detect if current is flowing or not. On-off output is fine; no need to actually measure the ...
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0answers
28 views

Calibre LVS error

Hi i did my layout in cadence virtuoso and i had passed clean the DRC and LVS. Now when i run calibre DRC i am getting "metal density error". I was testing a layout design that was already fabricated ...
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0answers
36 views

What is this 5 terminal part marked AA17s?

I am doing some reverse engineering with a toy RC helicopter pcb, trying to make my own. At the original pcb there is a small 5 terminal part marked with "AA17s" on top, which I have no idea what it ...
0
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1answer
66 views

1V to 5V dc-dc step-up circuit @ Iout = 1A

I am trying to convert unregulated 1V input to 5V, 1A output within a project I am working on. I have tried working with MAX757 but could not get it to work. It takes a couple of weeks for maxim ICs ...
1
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1answer
37 views

PSpice Simulation of CE8301

I have been working on a project that requires me to boost 1V to 5V. I have found a ready-to-use boost regulator that gets the job done. The problem is that I need to get the circuit simulated on ...
3
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1answer
49 views

Understanding the complex circuitry in supplying voltage to an IC chip

I'm very new to microcontrollers and I'm trying to understand the purpose of the pinouts of an IC so that I can interface it to a microcontroller. Most of the pinout description from the datasheet are ...
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1answer
63 views

A simple memory chip

I think I understand how one can use an Arduino to program an external EEPROM memory chip. I am wondering if there are any memory chips that don't need any type of micro controller to operate. So, for ...
5
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2answers
995 views

Where is this LED getting its timing from? [duplicate]

So this little board when connected to 5v and GND start blinking different colors in different orders and with different timing for colors to stay on! There is nothing on the board other than the LED ...
2
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1answer
102 views

What are all the tiny features on this microchip?

I've been reading some very basic introductory material on computer hardware and it occurred to me that I would like to take a look at a microchip to see the physical implementation of a simple logic ...
0
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1answer
28 views

Creating Cadence Virtuoso Layout in Rectangular MOS Power device [closed]

I am trying to create a Power MOSFET with W/L = 9.2mm/1.6u This value is as per the design specification obtained by simulation using schematic value. I am new to Cadence Virtuoso and would ...
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2answers
104 views

What is stc32ab IC

I have some stc32ab IC's but I cannot find any information or datasheet for them. Please give me some information and/or datasheet about this IC
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1answer
58 views

Why the pins of a port in some microcontrollers are not in order? [duplicate]

In some ICs the pin numbers are not in proper order. For example, in msp430x12x2 series (following pic). In the pic, why don't P2.0 be available at pin 20 (or adjacent to P1.0 ??) Why is that few ...