The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that elaborates information in the form of digital signals. Not to be confused with a microcontroller, which embeds many additional devices to control embedded systems.

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Can't identify chip [on hold]

I've done extensive research trying to figure out what the original use was for a series of small RCA chips. They are approximately 1x3" and marked XEX1 and a 9 digit number on the left. I have looked ...
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2answers
116 views

how to build a micro processor? [closed]

I have learnt about 8085 micro processor in my 4th sem of engineering. Now I want to make own 8085 micro processor . My question is how should I start ? What are the requirements and which are the ...
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1answer
59 views

MPU accessing busy memory

I didn't know whether to place this question here or on stackoverflow, but I finally decided to post it here. I want to build a simple system that would be able to work with basic peripherals (UART, ...
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1answer
115 views

Why does Intel produce core i3, core i5 and core i7 processors; but not core i2, core i4 or core i6 processors? [closed]

Why does Intel produce core i3, core i5 and core i7 processors; but not core i2, core i4 or core i6 processors? What is the reason behind this?
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2answers
153 views

Why does Intel looks so advanced compared to other foundries, engraving fineness-wise? [closed]

Latest chips from Intel were 22nm, and they are now targeting 14nm (coming in 2014 or 2015 it seems). On the other hand, Global Foundries or TSMC struggle since several years to go beyond the 28nm ...
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0answers
22 views

Measuring power consumption of cache memories?

Is there any practical method to only measure the power consumption of combined cache memory. I am intereted in measuring the power conumption overhead when replacing blocks, and or filling the cache ...
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0answers
47 views

Where to start building this wifi video streaming circuit?

I am working on my own quadcopter and I would like to stream video from it to my computer. I know how to do it using Raspberry Pi and wifi dongle hooked to its usb port, but I don't want that solution ...
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1answer
33 views

Mapping the hex address representation to a specified conductor of system bus

I interested in how does implement the mapping of hex address representation to the specified contact of system bus. For example: Let we have logical address ...
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1answer
90 views

MSP430 printf function executes too slow

I try to use Sky mote (MSP430 F1611 + CC2420) to read the data from I2C sensor with 100Hz sampling frequency and write the data to serial port (USB). I tried a couple of tests and realized that the ...
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3answers
119 views

Why data buses should support 1024 bits, when processor are working with 64bits?

If the processors are working with 64bits, then why do they need Bus protocols to be as high as 1024bits. Is it for re usability?
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2answers
391 views

CPUs for retro computer school project

I'm a student in an IT school and we are trying to think of a project we could use to show 1st year students how things work behind the stage and we eventually thought of making a retro computer. ...
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3answers
162 views

Where do you find out how to program a specific microprocessor?

I have experience with AVRs, by programming them through the SPI port, but right now I'm looking at a Holtek HT46R22 and I can't find anything about how to program this Microprocessor. My question is ...
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1answer
60 views

Is it possible do download a programm FROM a microprocessor? [closed]

I really don't find anything on this topic. I'm not sure if JTAG may give such possibilities. [Edit]:I found out, that for example with AVR Processors it's possible, as long as the corresponding fuse ...
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1answer
151 views

Using interrupts to strobe an LED

Beginner here, just playing around with a devboard using a PIC micro. I am attempting to strobe an LED using an interrupt, I've created the function below within isr.c, INTOSC is running at 4MHz, TMR0 ...
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0answers
59 views

Application of intel 8253 timer

8253 timer works in 6 different modes namely interrupt on terminal count, hardware-retriggerable one shot, rate generator, square wave generator, software triggered strobe and hardware triggered ...
3
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1answer
130 views

How can some guys discern all parts of a MCU?

Today, when I was searching for find some dies, I saw these pictures: Now I'm curious that know how can some guys discern all part of a MCU? Is there any points that I use those to discern all ...
3
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1answer
96 views

Circuit Board Design Help (Novice) [closed]

I would like to see if the project that I am currently working on is something that can be done. Any help I can get would be much appreciated. I hope I am providing enough information. I am looking ...
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1answer
96 views

Identification of hardware interrupts in microprocessor 8085

I am familiar with the RIM and SIM instructions that are available in the instruction set of microprocessor 8085. And thus I can enable RST 7.5 and RST 6.5 interrupts using SIM instruction and EI ...
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1answer
58 views

Dynamic energy and dynamic power in microprocessors

In a class I'm learning about dynamic energy and dynamic power and the notes seem to be incomplete. ...
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3answers
515 views

Can I do this tutorial without a potentiometer?

I am trying out online tutorial to practice python and Raspberry Pi. I am currently following this tutorial. It says a potentiometer is needed, but I don't have one. The lcd I have is JHD162A What ...
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1answer
214 views

What's the difference between minimum feature size , transistor gate length and half pitch?

I've been looking into the limits that silicon based transistors. During this I've come across several terms describing the small size of a transistor, minimum feature size and transistor gate length ...
4
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3answers
685 views

How to Debouce Six Buttons on One Analog Pin With Arduino

I'm using analog pin 5 on Arduino to detect presses from 6 push-buttons. On the picture top-right button is number 1 and then from right to left they go as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Program should print 0 when ...
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1answer
71 views

Moore's law: relationship between transistor count on an integrated circuit and minimum feature size

I'm doing a project about Moore's law, looking at physical limits of the technology / materials we're using (photolithography for example), the limit you'll come to is the minimum feature size. For ...
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1answer
383 views

Number of machine cycles in microprocessor 8085

The DCR instruction in MP 8085 has has 1 machine cycle, i.e. opcode fetch cycle. But the DCR M instruction has 3 machine cycles. What are those three machine cycles?
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2answers
373 views

Memory mapping in the 8085 microprocessor

In the 8085 microprocessor there is 64 kb of memory available of which some are assigned to ROM while others are assigned to RAM. My question is, why is ROM always mapped to a lower region of memory ...
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4answers
228 views

What are the advantages to a separate processor when there is an FPGA present?

Consider an embedded application with both a discrete processor(ARM, AVR, PIC, etc) and an FPGA to offload some of the work or interface with specific hardware. Assuming there are sufficient ...
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3answers
327 views

History, reason for and implications of the 2 modes of a modern microprocessor?

The modern microprocessors I've dealt with could have 2 modes: User and superuser (and sometimes this difference was just in the manual and not actually implemented like with the Nios II which states ...
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5answers
469 views

Arduino vs Microprocessor vs Microcontroller

What is the difference between an Arduino, a microprocessor, and a microcontroller? I'm trying to determine what is best to operate a cheap resistive touch screen.
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1answer
117 views

Why do we use (0,+V) in digital electronics (eg processors) instead of (-V/2,+V/2)? [closed]

Would making the default voltages for 0 and 1 where relevant +|- V/2 save 1/2 power?
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1answer
148 views

How is machine code handled by the microprocessor? [closed]

And no I don't mean "How do you write a program for a processor". What I want to know is how does a processor interpret some aribtrary instruction, say 100001 as ...
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1answer
42 views

How is the Second level of Cache Accessed

Since the processors have more than one level f memory, how is the 2nd level of Cache accessed. i.e., Access both the first level of Cache and 2nd level are Cache are accessed at the same time. If ...
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2answers
95 views

What happens on a Cache miss?

In the present day processors more than one level of memory is present for trying for the realization of an ideal memory system and to do more work for clock cycle more than one instruction is in the ...
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1answer
80 views

N-Well Resistor

So as I'm currently looking into basic VSLI, I made a simple voltage divider in Electric using N-Well resistors. I was hoping to understand: Why does an N-well act as a resistor? A reference to better ...
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0answers
69 views

How are the control signals determined for a jump instruction in the MIPS pipeline?

NOTE: Let me point out that I did try extensively to solve this on my own. The problem is that, based on that circuit, it would appear that this processor cannot jump. At best the jump instruction ...
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0answers
162 views

How to implement memory mapped IO

I am describing a system in VHDL. This system already contains a processor, a DDR SDRAM controller and a VGA controller. VGA reads pixels from SDRAM (already validated and proven in FPGA). Although ...
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2answers
223 views

How does a microprocessor operate in sequence?

I am trying to understand how microprocessors work. I am savvy about full adders and boolean arithmetic and buses and the like, and in fact, I have "built" a full adder before (in a computer ...
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2answers
86 views

SDRAM initialization

I've been trying to study how the ARM bootloader works, but initialization of SDRAM is still somewhat a mystery to me. For example AT91 Bootstrap uses following function for initialization. I think I ...
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1answer
87 views

what is microcoded architecture in computer architecture

I want to know what is microcoded microarchitecture of an instruction set architecture (ISA) and why is it used? What is the difference between microcoded architecture and single cycle ...
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1answer
244 views

AT89c51RE2 replaced with AT89LP51RD2, ISP programming

have a question I can't seem to figure out the answer to. We have existing boards running off the AT89c51RE2 processor. Works great because it supports In-System-Programming. This means we can use ...
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3answers
206 views

Is therea mcu/cpu with an isolated stack (via hardware or compiler)?

There's the harvard architecture, which isolated the data and code buses. Is there an architecture which also isolated the stack bus in hardware ? or at least some compiler that implements a dual ...
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1answer
62 views

To what extent can frequency improve speed? [closed]

Circuit A has a throughput of 50 Megabits/second (Mb/s) running at 33 Mhz, while Circuit B has a throughput of 70 Mb/s running at 50 Mhz. It is clear that running a circuit at a higher frequency can ...
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1answer
181 views

Designing a circuit that will reset the proccessor

In the book The Intel Microprocessors Family: Hardware and Software, Principles and Applications chapter 8, page 307, question 30: design a circuit that will reset the processor if a NMI occurs ...
2
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0answers
73 views

Resistive touchscreen to ADC

I want to hook up a resistive touchscreen to an ADC. I'm new to electronics and experienced in developing software. My intention is to learn, I would much appreciate it if you could nudge me into the ...
0
votes
2answers
158 views

Does Intel pentium 4th generation was made for 10GHz [closed]

Somewhere during browsing on Internet I have seen that Intel Pentium 4th generation was made for a high operating clock frequency of around 10GHz, but the researchers can operate it only for a ...
3
votes
2answers
155 views

Electromigration, are computers nowadays less durable?

I've been reading press articles and about electromigration and how it is associated with miniaturization. I have seen old computers working for decades, and I'm wondering how bad the electromigration ...
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1answer
631 views

How to set all flags in 8085?

My Microprocessor teacher of 8085 gave an assignment to set all flags ! I have written this little program to set all except Sign, Please help me out ...
6
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1answer
1k views

What actually is a shadow register?

I noticed the term Shadow Register while going through a datasheet of a TMS320F28335 DSP. What does it actually mean? Does it have a physical location in the CPU as ...
0
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1answer
73 views

How do microsequencers in CPUs parse data from RAM in the control unit/control store before determining what to do with the bits/voltages?

I have been reading up on machine code, and in many architectures (x86 IA-32, IA-64, AMD K6, ARM v7, ARM v9) and microarchitectures (Intel Core, P6, P5, etc.) machine code is additionally translated ...
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2answers
98 views

External programing of an mcu without Hex

We need to change a controller code from the out side as they do with industrial MCU. So that you have an MCU, with a program on it, and someone can program some "words" to it, that will determine how ...
3
votes
2answers
788 views

Why are ARM9 and ARM11 processors still used when the Cortex-A5 is more efficient? [closed]

Many consumer devices that require a low-power processor capable of running for several days to a few weeks on a charge still use ARM9 or ARM11 processors. However, the ARM Cortex-A5 is more powerful ...