The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that elaborates information in the form of digital signals. Not to be confused with a microcontroller, which embeds many additional devices to control embedded systems.

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Help with the use of FPGAs to make custom microprocessor chips [on hold]

I have been reading up on FPGAs, and I was wondering how can I get my hands on one? If I were to get my hands on one, would I hire someone to perform the tasks that I needed to get done with the FPGA. ...
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46 views

Application of intel 8253 timer

8253 timer works in 6 different modes namely interrupt on terminal count, hardware-retriggerable one shot, rate generator, square wave generator, software triggered strobe and hardware triggered ...
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1answer
121 views

How can some guys discern all parts of a MCU?

Today, when I was searching for find some dies, I saw these pictures: Now I'm curious that know how can some guys discern all part of a MCU? Is there any points that I use those to discern all ...
3
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1answer
65 views

Circuit Board Design Help (Novice) [closed]

I would like to see if the project that I am currently working on is something that can be done. Any help I can get would be much appreciated. I hope I am providing enough information. I am looking ...
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1answer
61 views

Identification of hardware interrupts in microprocessor 8085

I am familiar with the RIM and SIM instructions that are available in the instruction set of microprocessor 8085. And thus I can enable RST 7.5 and RST 6.5 interrupts using SIM instruction and EI ...
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1answer
41 views

Dynamic energy and dynamic power in microprocessors

In a class I'm learning about dynamic energy and dynamic power and the notes seem to be incomplete. ...
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3answers
498 views

Can I do this tutorial without a potentiometer?

I am trying out online tutorial to practice python and Raspberry Pi. I am currently following this tutorial. It says a potentiometer is needed, but I don't have one. The lcd I have is JHD162A What ...
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1answer
98 views

What's the difference between minimum feature size , transistor gate length and half pitch?

I've been looking into the limits that silicon based transistors. During this I've come across several terms describing the small size of a transistor, minimum feature size and transistor gate length ...
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3answers
291 views

How to Debouce Six Buttons on One Analog Pin With Arduino

I'm using analog pin 5 on Arduino to detect presses from 6 push-buttons. On the picture top-right button is number 1 and then from right to left they go as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Program should print 0 when ...
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1answer
44 views

Moore's law: relationship between transistor count on an integrated circuit and minimum feature size

I'm doing a project about Moore's law, looking at physical limits of the technology / materials we're using (photolithography for example), the limit you'll come to is the minimum feature size. For ...
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1answer
93 views

Number of machine cycles in microprocessor 8085

The DCR instruction in MP 8085 has has 1 machine cycle, i.e. opcode fetch cycle. But the DCR M instruction has 3 machine cycles. What are those three machine cycles?
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2answers
136 views

Memory mapping in the 8085 microprocessor

In the 8085 microprocessor there is 64 kb of memory available of which some are assigned to ROM while others are assigned to RAM. My question is, why is ROM always mapped to a lower region of memory ...
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4answers
202 views

What are the advantages to a separate processor when there is an FPGA present?

Consider an embedded application with both a discrete processor(ARM, AVR, PIC, etc) and an FPGA to offload some of the work or interface with specific hardware. Assuming there are sufficient ...
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3answers
316 views

History, reason for and implications of the 2 modes of a modern microprocessor?

The modern microprocessors I've dealt with could have 2 modes: User and superuser (and sometimes this difference was just in the manual and not actually implemented like with the Nios II which states ...
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5answers
250 views

Arduino vs Microprocessor vs Microcontroller

What is the difference between an Arduino, a microprocessor, and a microcontroller? I'm trying to determine what is best to operate a cheap resistive touch screen.
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1answer
113 views

Why do we use (0,+V) in digital electronics (eg processors) instead of (-V/2,+V/2)? [closed]

Would making the default voltages for 0 and 1 where relevant +|- V/2 save 1/2 power?
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1answer
139 views

How is machine code handled by the microprocessor? [closed]

And no I don't mean "How do you write a program for a processor". What I want to know is how does a processor interpret some aribtrary instruction, say 100001 as ...
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1answer
42 views

How is the Second level of Cache Accessed

Since the processors have more than one level f memory, how is the 2nd level of Cache accessed. i.e., Access both the first level of Cache and 2nd level are Cache are accessed at the same time. If ...
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2answers
90 views

What happens on a Cache miss?

In the present day processors more than one level of memory is present for trying for the realization of an ideal memory system and to do more work for clock cycle more than one instruction is in the ...
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1answer
49 views

N-Well Resistor

So as I'm currently looking into basic VSLI, I made a simple voltage divider in Electric using N-Well resistors. I was hoping to understand: Why does an N-well act as a resistor? A reference to better ...
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0answers
46 views

How are the control signals determined for a jump instruction in the MIPS pipeline?

NOTE: Let me point out that I did try extensively to solve this on my own. The problem is that, based on that circuit, it would appear that this processor cannot jump. At best the jump instruction ...
2
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0answers
96 views

How to implement memory mapped IO

I am describing a system in VHDL. This system already contains a processor, a DDR SDRAM controller and a VGA controller. VGA reads pixels from SDRAM (already validated and proven in FPGA). Although ...
4
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2answers
209 views

How does a microprocessor operate in sequence?

I am trying to understand how microprocessors work. I am savvy about full adders and boolean arithmetic and buses and the like, and in fact, I have "built" a full adder before (in a computer ...
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2answers
57 views

SDRAM initialization

I've been trying to study how the ARM bootloader works, but initialization of SDRAM is still somewhat a mystery to me. For example AT91 Bootstrap uses following function for initialization. I think I ...
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1answer
61 views

what is microcoded architecture in computer architecture

I want to know what is microcoded microarchitecture of an instruction set architecture (ISA) and why is it used? What is the difference between microcoded architecture and single cycle ...
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1answer
134 views

AT89c51RE2 replaced with AT89LP51RD2, ISP programming

have a question I can't seem to figure out the answer to. We have existing boards running off the AT89c51RE2 processor. Works great because it supports In-System-Programming. This means we can use ...
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3answers
175 views

Is therea mcu/cpu with an isolated stack (via hardware or compiler)?

There's the harvard architecture, which isolated the data and code buses. Is there an architecture which also isolated the stack bus in hardware ? or at least some compiler that implements a dual ...
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1answer
62 views

To what extent can frequency improve speed? [closed]

Circuit A has a throughput of 50 Megabits/second (Mb/s) running at 33 Mhz, while Circuit B has a throughput of 70 Mb/s running at 50 Mhz. It is clear that running a circuit at a higher frequency can ...
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1answer
163 views

Designing a circuit that will reset the proccessor

In the book The Intel Microprocessors Family: Hardware and Software, Principles and Applications chapter 8, page 307, question 30: design a circuit that will reset the processor if a NMI occurs ...
2
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0answers
59 views

Resistive touchscreen to ADC

I want to hook up a resistive touchscreen to an ADC. I'm new to electronics and experienced in developing software. My intention is to learn, I would much appreciate it if you could nudge me into the ...
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2answers
137 views

Does Intel pentium 4th generation was made for 10GHz [closed]

Somewhere during browsing on Internet I have seen that Intel Pentium 4th generation was made for a high operating clock frequency of around 10GHz, but the researchers can operate it only for a ...
3
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2answers
145 views

Electromigration, are computers nowadays less durable?

I've been reading press articles and about electromigration and how it is associated with miniaturization. I have seen old computers working for decades, and I'm wondering how bad the electromigration ...
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1answer
376 views

How to set all flags in 8085?

My Microprocessor teacher of 8085 gave an assignment to set all flags ! I have written this little program to set all except Sign, Please help me out ...
4
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1answer
658 views

What actually is a shadow register?

I noticed the term Shadow Register while going through a datasheet of a TMS320F28335 DSP. What does it actually mean? Does it have a physical location in the CPU as ...
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0answers
46 views

How do microsequencers in CPUs parse data from RAM in the control unit/control store before determining what to do with the bits/voltages?

I have been reading up on machine code, and in many architectures (x86 IA-32, IA-64, AMD K6, ARM v7, ARM v9) and microarchitectures (Intel Core, P6, P5, etc.) machine code is additionally translated ...
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2answers
96 views

External programing of an mcu without Hex

We need to change a controller code from the out side as they do with industrial MCU. So that you have an MCU, with a program on it, and someone can program some "words" to it, that will determine how ...
2
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2answers
461 views

Why are ARM9 and ARM11 processors still used when the Cortex-A5 is more efficient? [closed]

Many consumer devices that require a low-power processor capable of running for several days to a few weeks on a charge still use ARM9 or ARM11 processors. However, the ARM Cortex-A5 is more powerful ...
0
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1answer
185 views

What does “CL” stand for in this processor architecture block diagram?

I'm learning about pipelining but can't understand this abbreviation: "CL". You can see it in processors' schemes. It is shown with with and without a line above it; what is the line for? Diagram ...
4
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3answers
410 views

How can the number of clock cycles required to complete an instruction in a pipelined processor less than pipeline latency?

I am not new to computer architecture but I have only academic experience with micro-architecture implementation. I have heard and read this many times but never really bothered to understand the ...
0
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1answer
68 views

Why the mismatch between frontend and backend width?

Looking at Qualcomm's Krait core microarchitecture, I noticed there is a mismatch between the width of the frontend and the backend: 11 stage integer pipeline with 3-way decode and 4-way ...
7
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3answers
285 views

Is there a correspondence between cache size and access latency?

Is there is a correspondence between cache sizes and access latency? All other things being equal, does a larger cache operate slower? If so, why? How much slower?
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1answer
106 views

t6963 GLCD very low contrast

I am trying to setup a 240x128 GLCD with t6963c driver (datasheet). I am familiar with ks0108 drivers but newbie in t6963. I have written a simple code with only lcd-init() that I expect to see the ...
2
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0answers
139 views

How does a computer work? [closed]

I am a software programmer.I am very much curious to know about the behind the scenes of how actually a computer works. By HOW I mean:On the hardware level. My knowledge about software programming ...
2
votes
2answers
204 views

Protocol for WiFi network to connect to a website?

Ok, I'm trying to wrap my hands around communicating over WiFi using a microcontroller. There seem to be various options such as UART, SPI etc. If I want an Arduino to get or put content on a ...
10
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2answers
883 views

What could cause a microcontroller to unexpectedly reset?

One particularly irritating variety of bug in a microprocessor-controlled system is for the microprocessor to unexpectedly reset. An important tool for debugging this kind of problem is a list of ...
11
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4answers
362 views

Do computers speed up at higher temperatures?

At higher temperatures, will computers get faster? Evidently, one always wants cool a computer down as higher temperatures can damage core components. However, is it an interplay between silicon, ...
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2answers
161 views

Simulation tool to calculate microprocessor power consumption?

Are there any simulation tools to calculate microprocessor power consumption at the early brainstorming stage of development?
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0answers
229 views

Any simplified diagram explanation of how CPU works? [duplicate]

I'm a high level Java developer. My major is Information Systems. However, my internship subject is in embedded systems programming by C, about which I have no idea. Trying to study about it, I ...
0
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1answer
128 views

Problem changing system clock frequency

I have an ATtiny85 and I'm trying to set the clock to 8 MHz. I have read the data sheet and some discussions on how to do this but am not having any luck getting it to work. I have included my code ...
1
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1answer
151 views

Are there any ATxmega chips with bi-directional SPi ports?

I searched the datasheets shown for the ATxmega chips in the Microcontroller Selector, shown on the left side of http://www.atmel.com/products/microcontrollers/default.aspx, for any ATxmega chips with ...