The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that elaborates information in the form of digital signals. Not to be confused with a microcontroller, which embeds many additional devices to control embedded systems.

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Simulating LCD device

I wanted to connect LCD LM016L in my device simulating it on Proteus.I wanted to use 8255 to connect the LCD directly with one port of the 8255.But I have a doubt do I need a controller too or just ...
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2answers
53 views

Why is there an inductor in this power supply circuit for SAM3X MCU?

I am working on a senior design project and am trying to embed an ATSAM3X8E (Here is the Application Sheet PDF) micro-controller into a system my team is designing. What is the pourpose of ...
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1answer
91 views
+50

Micro and Nano Memory, Calculate Reducing Bits?

I ran into a question: in digital system with micro-programmed control circuit, total of 32 distinct pattern operation signal is ...
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1answer
93 views

Using an FPGA over an Arduino

Having read this excellent answer on FPGA's vs Microcontrollers I have a few queries. I recently completed a project that utilised reflectance sensors. Simply put, it reads the reflectance by ...
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7answers
1k views

Why are 11, 111, 1111, … equivalent to -1 in two's complement? [duplicate]

According to two's complement, the binary numbers 111 and 11111111 are equivalent to -1. Why or how are the binary numbers 11, 111, 1111, 1111 1111, etc. equivalent to -1 in two's complement? Can ...
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3answers
167 views

Why All 1's used as a second input in decrement operation of ALU?

Suppose the first four data inputs are X (X0, X1, X2, X3) and the second four data inputs are Y (Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3) in a 4-bit ALU. Why "All 1's" are used as an input for Y in the decrement operation of ...
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0answers
7 views

Use arduino uno to program the on-board atmega328 in C [migrated]

I have an Arduino Uno board. I have seen how it is possible to program external AVR's through the Arduino Uno board, for instance an ATtiny. But I'm starting with c for atmel µc and I just want to ...
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0answers
273 views

How to calculate phase shift between two square waveforms with Arduino DUE [migrated]

I have two square wave signals with the same frequency. I want to measure the phase shift between these two signals. There will be a small phase difference between two signals. (0-90 degree) and the ...
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1answer
206 views

Interfacing 2 accelerometers through I2C

I am looking at designing a system where 2 accelerometers are connected to a microcontroller using I2C however I am unsure as to how this would actually work. In particular would I need a ...
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0answers
36 views

How the clock runs on modern processors? [duplicate]

I would like to understand how the clock in modern processors. It is delivered via hardware or via software? I understand how the clock works of a microcontroller with an external crystal or even ...
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3answers
3k views

Why does a processor get hot?

I would like to understand how the computation process causes the processor to get hot. I understand that the heat is generated by the transistors. How does the transistors generate the heat ...
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3answers
138 views

How Can A Coded Firmware Control Hardware [closed]

I really want to know how could a virtual coded program really affect and imitate and animate a piece of hardware. I Have Always Seen The Diagram Of Processors In the Book Showing ALU and CPU as The ...
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1answer
58 views

Can a microprocessor ( specifically the ALU) be considered as an FPGA that is re-programmed by the Instruction Decoder

So, I have been reading about FPGAs. As I understand, they work by providing logic blocks for the programmer to link together to solve a particular task. Many such tasks may run in parallel; so an ...
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0answers
19 views

What is the procedure to execute GO command in mda-win8086 kit?

I think to execute a program whole at a time GO command is the only option in a 8086 microprocessor kit. But unfortunately I am not understanding how to execute GO command. Yes, I understand I have to ...
3
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2answers
157 views

What should I know if I want to move from microcontrollers to microprocessors? [closed]

I'm familiar with using microcontrollers, both with frameworks like Arduino and natively (PIC / AVR). I'm also familiar with the general architecture of embedded systems, in so much as I know you have ...
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1answer
62 views

need for external i/o interfacing like in 8086 for latest processors

I am a student now currently learning about interfacing 8255 with 8086. For me the doubt is that, is there a need for external i/o interfacing like in 8086 for latest processors? what is GPIO ?
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1answer
44 views

5V I/O Chip Which Works Like An Atmel µC Port? [closed]

I'm working on a project with a 5V vintage 8-bit microprocessor, which I would like to hook some I/O to. I'd like to find a nice little package that could help me with this. I'm happy if it is a ...
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0answers
31 views

Control Steps of “SUB R1, [[R3]]” for Intel 8086

Question What are the control steps for SUB R1, [[R3]] for Intel 8086? I do not know how to obtain the content of the address twice. I guess that maybe I should put two \$MAR_{in}\$s like the ...
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0answers
39 views

arduino output pins collapsing voltage - is it dead?

After a while i came back to my arduino UNO R3, and attempted most simple program, that sets digital output pin high. I measured voltage over that pin, and got 5 volts, but when I connected an LED, ...
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1answer
70 views

CPU Core frequency [closed]

I was going through the selection criteria of CPU (MCU/MPU/FPGA) and observed that core frequency is one important parameter while selecting a CPU. But I was unable to get information regarding, how ...
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2answers
69 views

Shift value to some point in binary number

I wonder if it is possible to do the following. For instance, I have a number 00001110. I am shifting it left. -> 00011100.... But the question is if it possible to start setting value in carry flag ...
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1answer
45 views

What is Pipeline Flushing in microprocessors

I am reading the book "Writing Operating System from Scratch" by Nick Blundell. In one of the chapters, it is explained how we make transition from 16bit mode to 32bit mode. It says that before moving ...
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1answer
122 views

STM32F4 - DMA with bigger steps

I'm programming an STM32F4 Discovery board to push a sequence of 12 bit values into the DAC data register. This works well using timer interrupts: inside my IRQ handler, I have code that looks like: ...
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2answers
116 views

Why does the Intel Atom processor need so much thermal dissipation compared to similar ARM processors

When looking at cases designed around the Intel NUC Atom-based board it seems they put a lot of effort into thermal dissipation (i.e. the entire case is basically a big heatsink). Of course, these ...
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1answer
41 views

Incompatibility between 5v processor and 12v source

L,H on the diagram below represent processor pins in LOW/HIGH states. LOW is 0v, HIGH -- 5V. Difference in voltage levels (5V vs 12V) leads to problems -- current flows on paths where it shouldn't. If ...
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2answers
80 views

How is data allocated in an assembly language using the instruction set?

Consider the following excerpt of assembly code written for the Nios II embedded processor architecture: ...
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1answer
113 views

Why does the A8 have twice as many transistors than the Haswell processor yet runs on less power?

There's something I don't get - I am always under the impression that the more transistors we pack in, the more energy it consumes and the hotter it gets (assuming we haven't shrunk the die). However, ...
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2answers
99 views

How much energy does cache memory consume in a modern processor? [closed]

What fraction (on average or range) of total processor energy consumption does the cache subsystem consume in modern processors (say post 2009)?
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3answers
248 views

How to find out if a microprocessor is powerful enough

Everybody knows its easy to develop a proof of concept for an embedded device on a rasbperry pi or even a PC, although when it comes down to choosing a microprocessor for your product, it is difficult ...
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3answers
81 views

Fast and cheap data aquisition

I need to be able to analyse signals that are 10ns in length. It comes from a PMT (Photomultiplier tube) or an equivalent detector. We need to be able to trigger at a certain signal strength coming ...
3
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5answers
727 views

How do you design processors / microprocessor [ not broad ]

Apologies for this vague title, but my question is a little specific. I have two concerns : During my digital electronics class, I was told that the design of the processor is first carried on an ...
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3answers
79 views

What is the maximum battery lifetime for a sleeping microprocessor? [closed]

I know it depends on the processor and the battery, I just want to know what's possible. [EDIT:] An example would be great!
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0answers
51 views

How to implement a pipelined integer divider

I need to implement a pipelined integer divider for my 64-bit microprocessor. I have tried reading up on this, but I am still confused. Any advice would be appreciated.
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1answer
50 views

How to set flags in microprocessor 8085 after IN instruction?

When microprocessor reads an input port, the instruction IN does not set any flag. If the input reading is zero, what logic instruction can be used to set the ZERO flag without affecting the contents ...
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1answer
56 views

Small system on a chip : Power consumption [closed]

This question is lying somewhere between electrical engineering and computer science, however I felt that this forum suited my question the best. I post this question because I feel that this kind of ...
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6answers
180 views

how to know how many bits a microcontroller has?

How can I know what kind of architecture a microcontroller has? For example where can I read in the datasheet of the pic 16F873 how many bits architecture is? 8, 16, 32? Next question what does: What ...
2
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2answers
356 views

Rotating POV LED Cylinder Using Addressable RGB LED Strips

​My son and I are trying to build a somewhat large Rotating POV Cylinder (or Globe) making use of ready-made Addressable RGB LED strips (WS28011 or LPD8806?). After some browsing, we found that many ...
3
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3answers
718 views

memory segmentation in 8086

If the external memory (1 MB) in 8086 based system is segmented into code, data, stack and extra which are all 64 kB, what do we do with the rest of the memory? Does it go waste?
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1answer
126 views

Shortest time required UART- UART transfer of 32 Byte block

I need to transfer 32 Byte block UART to UART 8 clock cycles per bit 1 start bit Struct 8-E-2 8bits 1 UART char, Even Parity, 2 stop bits/ char 1 + 8 + Even parity + 2 stop bits = 11 efficiency = ...
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0answers
117 views

NXP LPC2138 does not start up. Electronic problem?

I have a problem with LPC board and I cant figure out what is wrong. It manifests like this: I can connect board via jtag and Keil sw recognise the processor. I can program it (at least I guess that ...
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1answer
111 views

24 volt on microprocessor input pin

I have got my hands on a Intel Edison system on chip. I would like to use it to detect non-zero voltage. For example I have a test point that could be either 0 volt or 24 volt and I want to detect ...
2
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1answer
135 views

Where to simulate and test Microprocessor designs? [closed]

I'm reading book on computer architecture by Patterson and Hennessy. Now I'm much interested in designing a real-time working microprocessor. But i didn't have any idea where to start from! I started ...
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1answer
55 views

Interfacing switches with microcontroller

Im trying to interface momentary push-button switches to my Stellaris EK-LM4F120XL. Im using a positive logic interface, to momentarily set pin as HIGH if the button is pressed. A 10K resistor is ...
2
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4answers
186 views

2-bit branch prediction accuracy

I am trying to solve this problem, the answer should be 15/20 = 75%. However, I am not sure how this was calculated and want to understand the underlying concept. A program core consists of five ...
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1answer
98 views

How to calculate cache size?

A cache with a line size of L 32-bit words, S number of sets, W ways, and addresses are made up of A bits. Assume that the cache is word addressed, i.e., the low two bits of the address are ...
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1answer
85 views

Direct cache vs. associative cache

Trying to solve this problem where direct cache would outperform associative: Propose you have a cache with a line size of L 32-bit words, S number of sets, W ways, and addresses are made up of A ...
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1answer
113 views

5-stage pipelined implementation (RISC) of a microprocessor

I'm trying to solve two questions about a RISC 5-staged pipeline that is not exactly like MIPS found here (everything is included in this post). Consider the non-pipelined implementation of a simple ...
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2answers
159 views

How does part of a microprocessor (Apple secure enclave) use a microkernel (L4)?

Please excuse my ignorance. I'm an 'old-fashioned' guy who thinks that there is just 'software' and 'hardware' - and these are two separate things. Along this line of thinking an OS is part of the ...
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1answer
95 views

Will ARM replace that older processor architecture? [closed]

I know that those processors with ARM architecture have their advantages, but will it replace those old kind of ones? Or they just will be dealing with different kinds of applications and continue to ...
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2answers
142 views

Role of the Memory Management Unit

I know that the first instruction stored in BIOS is "mapped" to memory address 0, and that a signal on the reset pin to the microprocessor causes this instruction to be fetched, beginning the POST and ...