The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that elaborates information in the form of digital signals. Not to be confused with a microcontroller, which embeds many additional devices to control embedded systems.

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How does LRU cache works

I am trying to implement a small RISC CPU (without branch prediction and register renaming) and I want to give it a fully associatve cache (I and D caches). Everything is going well, but now I must ...
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56 views

Branching a pipeline

I am developing a pipeline. This pipeline has parallel flows of execution. What i need to know is, how to branch the pipeline and later how to fold it back ? (this question has nothing to do with ...
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1answer
30 views

Modifying memory of an integrated circuit

The integrated circuits of EMV-chips (normal credit cards) claim that their memory is physically protected, is it possible to make an integrated circuit in which the memory can only be modified and ...
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2answers
60 views

microprocessor 6502 addressing scheme

I'm preparing for a test and I currently stuck with the following question. We have a 6502 microprocessor. For the execution of an absolute jump the jump address with the address high byte (ADH) and ...
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1answer
53 views

Is MPC8260 microprocessor or microcontroller?

Microcontroller has a CPU, in addition with a fixed amount of RAM, ROM and other peripherals all embedded on a single chip. Microprocessor is an IC which has only the CPU inside them. They don’t have ...
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1answer
27 views

single cycle vs multicycle datapath execution times

I have a question where I need to calculate the execution time for a program for single cycle and multicycle datapath. I think I may be doing it incorrectly since the multicycle execution time is ...
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1answer
32 views

“DB” data directive explaination [closed]

What exactly is initialization of code memory IN 8051? Does the db directive command DB "SAM'' burn data into ROM location? WHAT DOES INITIALIZING WITH A BYTE VALUE MEAN ? I am all confused? I ...
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3answers
79 views

RAM and stack memory

I'd like to know what is the difference between RAM ( data memory ) and the stack memory in PIC micro controllers if both of them is volatile( not sure about stack ) and the stack is temporary memory? ...
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8answers
4k views

Why do Microcontrollers need a Clock

Why do instructions need to be processed at set time intervals (i.e. with the use of a clock)? Can't they be executed sequentially - immediately after the previous instruction has completed? An ...
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0answers
39 views

Why use decode stage on pipeline to forward control signals?

In a pipelined processor we use decode stage to decode an instruction and forward the control signals that were found until they are used. Why we don't pipeline the whole instruction and let each ...
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1answer
60 views

Z80 Binary Front Panel Design

Hello fellow engineers, I need some design design help with a Z80 based computer I am building. It will feature a binary Front Panel. The following functions may be performed via the front ...
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1answer
63 views

Crystal Footprint Placement

Pretty simple question, please point me in the right direction if this has already been asked. I am designing a board around freescale's IMX23 microprocessor which runs from an external crystal at ...
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1answer
47 views

What is the main difference between RST (0-7) and RST (5.5-7.5) in microprocessor 8085?

What's the main different between these two restart instructions? On the first case they are 1 byte call instruction and next case, they are vectored interrupts but definitely they are also call ...
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Why do we need the “nop” I.e. No operation instruction in microprocessor 8085?

In microprocessor 8085 instruction, there is a machine control operation "nop"(no operation). My question is why do we need a no operation? I mean if we have to end the program we will use HLT or RST ...
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1answer
77 views

Using djnz to make a loop in 8051 assembly language [closed]

To program 8051 using djnz loop I know that if we give r0 a number the loop will be executed accordingly. For example: ...
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1answer
68 views

After research, how should I go about creating a bluetooth peripheral?

My goal is to create a very simple (1 input, 1 output, both high / low states) bluetooth peripheral to be worn on the wrist to connect to an android phone running Lollipop. I have the following ...
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2answers
86 views

How a multicore processor is initialized? [closed]

Is there any general protocol or algorithm to start a multicore processor? If so, how it works?
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1answer
100 views

How to reset all flags in 8085 without an arithmetic or logic operation?

How can I reset all flags in 8085 without an arithmetic or logic operation?
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1answer
40 views

In 8085, what is peripheral mapped I/O?

Is the peripheral mapped I/O different from what is known as port-mapped I/O or simply known as I/O mapped I/O? I don't see the usage of the term "peripheral mapped I/O" around much. Was it only ...
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3answers
394 views

Why is the cost of microcontroller lesser than microprocessor

I was learning today about 8051 and I encountered a point which said microntroller generally costs less than a microprocessor. I didn't understood why is it so since microcontrollers have RAM, ROM, ...
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3answers
92 views

Buses in 8086 micro-processor

What are the buses known as A, B, C in the following architecture of 8086? I cannot find any information about these.
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2answers
182 views

Most carefull way to concatenate strings in C

My firmware in one cycle per 10 second is moving string to the output (csv file on SD card). The problem is that string sometimes in non-deterministic way is changing adding values that shouldn't be ...
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1answer
67 views

I want to create a custom computer board with USB and Ethernet feature that runs linux. [closed]

I want to make a computer board which only has USB and Ethernet. And the board should run linux. Actually I want to download some data from internet and save it on USB device. I am a programmer I can ...
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0answers
43 views

Simulating LCD device

I wanted to connect LCD LM016L in my device simulating it on Proteus.I wanted to use 8255 to connect the LCD directly with one port of the 8255.But I have a doubt do I need a controller too or just ...
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2answers
75 views

Why is there an inductor in this power supply circuit for SAM3X MCU?

I am working on a senior design project and am trying to embed an ATSAM3X8E (Here is the Application Sheet PDF) micro-controller into a system my team is designing. What is the pourpose of ...
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1answer
300 views

Micro and Nano Memory, Calculate Reducing Bits?

I ran into a question: in digital system with micro-programmed control circuit, total of 32 distinct pattern operation signal is ...
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1answer
154 views

Using an FPGA over an Arduino

Having read this excellent answer on FPGA's vs Microcontrollers I have a few queries. I recently completed a project that utilised reflectance sensors. Simply put, it reads the reflectance by ...
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7answers
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Why are 11, 111, 1111, … equivalent to -1 in two's complement? [duplicate]

According to two's complement, the binary numbers 111 and 11111111 are equivalent to -1. Why or how are the binary numbers 11, 111, 1111, 1111 1111, etc. equivalent to -1 in two's complement? Can ...
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3answers
213 views

Why All 1's used as a second input in decrement operation of ALU?

Suppose the first four data inputs are X (X0, X1, X2, X3) and the second four data inputs are Y (Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3) in a 4-bit ALU. Why "All 1's" are used as an input for Y in the decrement operation of ...
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1answer
224 views

Interfacing 2 accelerometers through I2C

I am looking at designing a system where 2 accelerometers are connected to a microcontroller using I2C however I am unsure as to how this would actually work. In particular would I need a ...
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0answers
37 views

How the clock runs on modern processors? [duplicate]

I would like to understand how the clock in modern processors. It is delivered via hardware or via software? I understand how the clock works of a microcontroller with an external crystal or even ...
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3answers
4k views

Why does a processor get hot?

I would like to understand how the computation process causes the processor to get hot. I understand that the heat is generated by the transistors. How does the transistors generate the heat ...
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3answers
153 views

How Can A Coded Firmware Control Hardware [closed]

I really want to know how could a virtual coded program really affect and imitate and animate a piece of hardware. I Have Always Seen The Diagram Of Processors In the Book Showing ALU and CPU as The ...
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1answer
69 views

Can a microprocessor ( specifically the ALU) be considered as an FPGA that is re-programmed by the Instruction Decoder

So, I have been reading about FPGAs. As I understand, they work by providing logic blocks for the programmer to link together to solve a particular task. Many such tasks may run in parallel; so an ...
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42 views

What is the procedure to execute GO command in mda-win8086 kit?

I think to execute a program whole at a time GO command is the only option in a 8086 microprocessor kit. But unfortunately I am not understanding how to execute GO command. Yes, I understand I have to ...
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2answers
172 views

What should I know if I want to move from microcontrollers to microprocessors? [closed]

I'm familiar with using microcontrollers, both with frameworks like Arduino and natively (PIC / AVR). I'm also familiar with the general architecture of embedded systems, in so much as I know you have ...
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1answer
115 views

need for external i/o interfacing like in 8086 for latest processors

I am a student now currently learning about interfacing 8255 with 8086. For me the doubt is that, is there a need for external i/o interfacing like in 8086 for latest processors? what is GPIO ?
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1answer
57 views

5V I/O Chip Which Works Like An Atmel µC Port? [closed]

I'm working on a project with a 5V vintage 8-bit microprocessor, which I would like to hook some I/O to. I'd like to find a nice little package that could help me with this. I'm happy if it is a ...
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0answers
38 views

Control Steps of “SUB R1, [[R3]]” for Intel 8086

Question What are the control steps for SUB R1, [[R3]] for Intel 8086? I do not know how to obtain the content of the address twice. I guess that maybe I should put two \$MAR_{in}\$s like the ...
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0answers
44 views

arduino output pins collapsing voltage - is it dead?

After a while i came back to my arduino UNO R3, and attempted most simple program, that sets digital output pin high. I measured voltage over that pin, and got 5 volts, but when I connected an LED, ...
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1answer
72 views

CPU Core frequency [closed]

I was going through the selection criteria of CPU (MCU/MPU/FPGA) and observed that core frequency is one important parameter while selecting a CPU. But I was unable to get information regarding, how ...
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2answers
73 views

Shift value to some point in binary number

I wonder if it is possible to do the following. For instance, I have a number 00001110. I am shifting it left. -> 00011100.... But the question is if it possible to start setting value in carry flag ...
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2answers
73 views

What is Pipeline Flushing in microprocessors

I am reading the book "Writing Operating System from Scratch" by Nick Blundell. In one of the chapters, it is explained how we make transition from 16bit mode to 32bit mode. It says that before moving ...
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1answer
253 views

STM32F4 - DMA with bigger steps

I'm programming an STM32F4 Discovery board to push a sequence of 12 bit values into the DAC data register. This works well using timer interrupts: inside my IRQ handler, I have code that looks like: ...
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2answers
187 views

Why does the Intel Atom processor need so much thermal dissipation compared to similar ARM processors

When looking at cases designed around the Intel NUC Atom-based board it seems they put a lot of effort into thermal dissipation (i.e. the entire case is basically a big heatsink). Of course, these ...
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1answer
50 views

Incompatibility between 5v processor and 12v source

L,H on the diagram below represent processor pins in LOW/HIGH states. LOW is 0v, HIGH -- 5V. Difference in voltage levels (5V vs 12V) leads to problems -- current flows on paths where it shouldn't. If ...
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2answers
96 views

How is data allocated in an assembly language using the instruction set?

Consider the following excerpt of assembly code written for the Nios II embedded processor architecture: ...
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1answer
120 views

Why does the A8 have twice as many transistors than the Haswell processor yet runs on less power?

There's something I don't get - I am always under the impression that the more transistors we pack in, the more energy it consumes and the hotter it gets (assuming we haven't shrunk the die). However, ...
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2answers
115 views

How much energy does cache memory consume in a modern processor? [closed]

What fraction (on average or range) of total processor energy consumption does the cache subsystem consume in modern processors (say post 2009)?
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3answers
278 views

How to find out if a microprocessor is powerful enough

Everybody knows its easy to develop a proof of concept for an embedded device on a rasbperry pi or even a PC, although when it comes down to choosing a microprocessor for your product, it is difficult ...