# Tagged Questions

This can refer to the design of the actual transistors inside an IC. That is also called IC layout.

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### How do you deal with worn wires?

Repairing a Macbook 4.1 (2008 model), I found something odd - the cables are breaking: The left side has a break in one cable's shielding (the wifi antenna most likely, as it's connected to a ...
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### Please explain tech.lef , tech.lib

Can anyone explain what is in the tech.lef and tech lib files? Which stage of PNR (Place and Route) are they used for? Are ...
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### Does the Black's equation work for immortal wires / interconnections (or only for mortal ones)?

I'm trying to understand whether the Black's equation is only true for mortal wire / interconnections or it is also applicable to immortal wires (essentially when its $jL$ product is less than ...
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### How do you make a shift/scale circuit using a transistor, resistors and a voltage source?

Given a resistive element that fluctuates between 0 and 10kOhms, a PNP transistor, a 20V source and a bunch of resistors, is it possible to construct a circuit with an output voltage as follows: 1) ...
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### What are the general steps used in creating a ASIC?

I'm following a discussion board that discusses an ASIC chip they are building, and they are using terms that I'm unfamilliar with. So far I've gathered Once a logic design is tested on an FPGA it ...
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### Why would an op-amp use BJTs over MOSFETs?

I've always been told that ideally, op-amps have infinite input impedance. So when I was looking at the LM741's transistor level schematic, I was confused when they used BJTs instead of MOSFETs. ...
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### How realistic is the famous “Bill sux” picture of a chip internals artwork?

There's an urban legend that some version of Intel Pentium chip had "Bill sux" caption somewhere on the circuit. The legend is accompanied with this picture: Now let's assume for a moment that the ...
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### Does PCB artwork affect operation and how is the effect validated?

Sometimes PCB designers will draw some art on unused PCB areas. Like here and here. Looks great, but does this affect schema functioning? According to answers to this question an entirely isolated ...
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### How do registers connect to CPU buses

I'm wondering what type of buffers/techniques are typically used for connecting a cpu register(flip flops?) to a cpu bus(data/address/control). Since there are many registers on a single bus, I know ...
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### Processor design: turning blocks on/off dynamically to save power?

I was wondering if this is possible and if it is done in current designs. Seemed like an interesting enough idea to me. Here's a little diagram I made to help try and explain: So let's say I'm ...
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### How do I design my very own ARM based processors?

I have several questions about how I would design my own ARM-based CPU? How does one start with an ARM license and end up with a package ready to be soldered on to a board? What do I get from ARM ...
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### How do I open a rectangular hole on a metal case?

I'm working on a case design. There is rectangular switch. I am trying to open a rectangular hole on the metallic case to fix it in there. I'm not doing a good job, if it goes on like this it looks ...
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### safe to use an unshielded jack for 10Mbps Ethernet?

I have a hardware device which includes Ethernet connectivity. I have a surface-mount Ethernet jack, with top entry (as opposed to right-angle). Part number is RIA Connect AJS03B8813, if that helps. ...