A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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Delta Sigma Converters: Resolution

This question is in reference to my earlier question: Resolution gain in Delta-Sigma Converters What I understand From the answers I inferred that we need the input to have some amount of noise (to ...
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111 views

Resolution gain in Delta-Sigma Converters

Suppose I have a two bit quantizer with the following voltage levels: [0 0.2 0.4 0.6]. Thus 0V corresponds to bits 00 and 0.6 to bits 11. Suppose I use this quantizer in a first order delta sigma loop ...
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34 views

Infrared Door opener

I have a case here, in the main entrance corridor, we have a door which have an automatic door opening mechanism if you push a button. There is also an IR receiver, I was planning to make a ...
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46 views

What is the value of x(t) as t goes to infinity if U is step input? [on hold]

I don't how to start could someone explain ? The solution is 1 but I don't know the steps to answer
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52 views

Microcontroller-based Automated Stall

I am currently working on a project for an automated sales stall where customers can view items and make purchases entirely on their own. The system I am attempting to implement is ...
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9answers
4k views

Can a radio transmitter somehow detect the number of receivers in its area?

During conversation, a colleague proposed that over-the-air television and radio broadcasters can determine the number of viewers or listeners based on the "load" on their signal. This seems to me ...
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61 views

How are the original signal and the AM signal related?

Use the TIMS “Variable DC” module to generate a 1V DC signal. Use the “Adder” module to add this DC signal to the message signal generated in task 1 (this will produce the ...
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2answers
1k views

What generates the clock signal in a fast CPU and how does it work?

Often, for integrated circuits, a quartz crystal is used to generate the clock signal. However, this only reaches speeds in MHz. What component, or what circuit, generates signals up to 5 GHz ...
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16 views

How to reduce settling time of a signal conditioning circuit for a PIR sensor

I have designed the circuit below to turn on an LED when movement is detected by a PIR sensor. Sometime when movement stops being detected the LED goes off quickly (within 0.5 seconds) and sometimes ...
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2answers
58 views

3.3v from 5v Arduino digital pin

I have an ESP8266 that I've got connected to my arduino and communicating quite well with... Now I'm looking at options to run my conifig via battery, so need to find ways to shutdown the ESP8266. ...
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21 views

Mimicking the signal from rx to tx for efm32

As stated in the title, am looking for a smart way to do the stated, i.e, I want to send back the signal I'm receiving, and read it while it passes through my buffers and process with that info... in ...
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1answer
34 views

Signal Detector (Field Strength Meter)

Hello I have attached a circuit of a Field Strength Meter that I came up with, my target frequency is around 500Mhz. I was wondering if a design like this will even be able to tune to 500Mhz. I am ...
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40 views

Effect of air signals over a cable [closed]

I want to know the effect of air signals (like am/fm radio signal) over my long wire (~100m long ~6mm^2 diameter). If i use band pass filter at radio frequency, how much voltage noise can i observe ...
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35 views

How to (cheaply) generate a low voltage DC analog signal (+/- 14 to 70 mV). 1 mA/cm2

I am looking to generate a low voltage DC analog signal (+/- 14 to 70 mV). I was also looking to incorporate frequency modulation (voltage controlled oscillator?). Would I be able to achieve this ...
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0answers
46 views

Clock signal sharpness

I'm currently tuning the termination resistors in the clock circuit. The resistor here is 330 ohms, I got a rippled clock signal like this: I increased both resistors value to 430 ohms and I got: ...
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1answer
59 views

Signal Detector (UHF Field Strength Meter)

after some reading I ended up finding a relatively basic FSM, using a antenna, an LC circuit to tune to a specific frequency, and a RF diode and final a ammeter to measure signal strength. My target ...
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61 views

Specified frequency signal detector

I understand that band pass filters are used in some circuits to filter out the desired frequencies. I also understand that an antenna picks up radio waves in the air and converts it into electrical ...
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1answer
50 views

Specific frequency signal detector

How does for example a generic signal detector (E.G. this cellular frequency detector circuit) actually pick up on a specific range of frequencies? (for 4g im assuming its around 900Mhz?) In ...
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97 views

Signal Conversion in C

So I have a 32 bit Float data type that represents a value of Ohms. I need to convert that signal to a 8 bit unsigned data type that represents mOhms, where 1mOhm per bit. Does anyone have any ideas ...
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2answers
66 views

Thermocouples - Understanding signal vs. power grounds

I have a simple circuit that reads a temperature and toggles a valve. The thermocouple functions when the dotted ground wire is unplugged, but fails otherwise. Minor edit: The 3.3V going into the ...
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1answer
17 views

Finding the DFT size in relation to an OFDM encoded signal

I am completely lost here. How do I go about determining the size of the DFT matrix used in conjunction with an OFDM encoded signal? I have researched this a lot but cannot find a solid answer? Is it ...
2
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0answers
23 views

Is GNSS S/N equivalent to C/N?

I work in developing software that integrates with GPS receivers. I've struggled for years with inconsistencies in documentation for the NMEA emitted by such receivers, and I've decided to put it to ...
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0answers
23 views

Modelling Phase noise

I am trying to model phase noise. However, when i apply the fft and see the noisy signal, frequency peak location is changing however the spectrum is not broadening. Can anyone enlighten me what is ...
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1answer
96 views

Wi-Fi transmitter/receiver in close proximity: Override interference?

I'd like to control a camera via Wi-Fi (zoom, trigger shutter, etc.), and possibly also capture a live video stream. This will be at an event with a huge number of Wi-Fi devices, and connectivity is ...
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4answers
76 views

Read -5V Signal with Microcontroller

I have the following problem. I want to read an -5V Signal using my Microcontroller. I have the following circuit setup, but it does not work. My problem is that the the signal is high while the ...
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1answer
35 views

3.5mm Stereo output to 3.5mm mic input crossover

I have two devices, each with two 3.5mm jacks for the usual audio out / in. I need a way to cross-over between the two, such that the stereo output of one, goes to the mic input of the other. I have ...
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1answer
37 views

How do electrical signals not get out of sync in CPUs and other integrated circuits?

I'm a newbie at electronics and this question has kept me occupied for a while: How do electrical signals not get out of sync in integrated circuits and CPUs? For example, let's take a look at 3 bit ...
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56 views

About the combination of two signals with capacitors

Here is a link of an article I've been reading. http://www.analoguehaven.com/moog/thereminblack/hotrod.pdf In page 4 there is a circuit schematic. Notice there is a part called variable pitch ...
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42 views

When are meanders necessary? and how to calculate timing differences

I've found that meanders are used for high speed traces like RAMs wires and are also used for coupled wires like in the usb. My question is, how I know when I should use meanders to keep track ...
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2answers
132 views

How to isolate two signals from each other if they use the same power source?

See the very simplified schematic down. As what you can see: Two inputs are in the form of a DC signal. We operate each input individually. RL represents a motor. The two inputs are initialized by a ...
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4answers
89 views

Are radio stations with higher frequency able to transmit higher quality audio?

e.g. a radio station at 100 mhz on FM vs a 50 mhz radio station. Wouldn't the latter have a lower bandwidth therefore lower quality audio/bit rate? If this is true, this must also mean that 2.4ghz ...
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1answer
50 views

ADC samples half frequency

I'm using a dsPIC33F (Microchip) to sample a 555-timer signal. I've tried square, triangular, and "sinusoidal" signal shapes, but always have the same problem: the ADC samples the waveform correctly, ...
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2answers
102 views

Is there any simple way or trick to express given signal using waveforms of sum of simple sinusoidal signals?

We know that Fourier series for periodic signal \$y(t)\$ is given by $$ y(t) = \sum\limits_{m=0}^{+\infty} a_m \cos(w_m t) + \sum\limits_{m=0}^{+\infty}b_m \sin(w_m t). \quad$$ y(t) is sinusoidal ...
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36 views

Unknown voltage oscillations in sensor data acquired by NI 9234 DAq module.

I am using a National Instruments 9234 Data Acquisition module for the measurement of voltage across my pressure sensor which is used to sense the pressure on it by measuring the voltage across it. ...
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2answers
85 views

Coaxial cable vs shielded pair

I need to wire a sensor with analog output to an acquisition system, and the presence of a separate "shield" connection on the DAQ made me thinking: why would I use a shielded 2-wire cable versus a ...
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1answer
31 views

Can a PLL work with a sine signal as its XIN?

I need to generate a 150.012MHz signal. I am going to this with a PLL for RF purposes, so I am thinking to buy a 10Mhz osc with a sine output, will this work with all PLLs? as they are digital I'm not ...
3
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2answers
90 views

Best way to count glass marbles

I've got a reason to count a number of marbles in a game. Up to about 100. I can feed them down a track one at a time. I can ensure that they each go down separately, although I can't accurately ...
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2answers
102 views

Understanding alternating current (sine wave) [closed]

I want to study the basics of propagating a periodic signal, i.e. sine waveform, which is a power signal. Let us consider an alternating current and write its expression as $$I(t) = I_m \sin(2\pi f ...
2
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1answer
86 views

How tuning of particular FM signal is done?

I have a transistor radio which has facility to play FM radio channels between 88MHz to 108MHz frequencies. Now,consider a situation ,there are five FM stations which I can hear in my city ...
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1answer
121 views

How to amplify a very small signal

I am trying to wrap my mind around very small signals; what they mean, and how to amplify them. For example, here is a screenshot from my cell phone. Notice the signal level received is -97dBm. ...
2
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2answers
113 views

What are values of fundamental frequency and the harmonics for the below signal g(t)?

We know that a Fourier series formula for any signal $s(t)$ is given as $$\frac {a_0} 2 + \sum \limits _{m=1} ^\infty (a_m \cos \frac {2 \pi m t} T + b_m \sin \frac {2 \pi m t} T)$$ Here,as we see ...
2
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1answer
90 views

Signal on top of PWR line

See edits at bottom: I'm trying to design a network of circuits (see example below), in which a modular circuit (non-static, can be change, with high variability in current draw) is connected on any ...
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1answer
36 views

Usefulness of VBW in spectrum analyzer

Typically in the block scheme of a spectrum analyzer a video filter, with a bandwidth VBW, is located after the envelope detector and before the screen. As pointed out in this document, the VBW may ...
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58 views

Monitoring voltage state without interfering

I have a CO2 laser cutter, and I am designing as circuit to turn on some outlets whenever the laser is firing. The laser is turned on by a 5V logic connection to the high voltage power supply. If I ...
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0answers
28 views

ISE 14.7 fatal error problem

I am having fatal error problem in ISE 14.7. I checked out for this problem and got here: http://www.xilinx.com/support/answers/33423.html It says that this error can also occur if the simulator ...
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1answer
157 views

Transmission line: Why do longer traces cause signal reflections?

As the question says, I want to know why do longer traces/longer lengths of non-terminated signals of the PCB cause reflections and not the short length ones? I am ignoring the negligible amount of ...
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36 views

How to determine servo signal encoding

I have a TowerPro SG90 servo which matches the "JR" brand wiring discussed here where the servo's 3 wires are as follows: Red is + Black is ...
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138 views

Why signal is inverted in common emitter amplifier?

Why signal is inverted in a common emitter amplifier?
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93 views

Calculating attenuation of coax cable run

This question is related to my question about long-distance Ethernet. I discovered the Netsys NH-310C, a reasonably-priced device for converting Ethernet to coax for long-distance runs. The ...
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2answers
32 views

Explanation of the result of a solved exercise concerning the unit step response of a system

I came across a solved exercise regarding Signals and Systems in which there is a system with impulse response \$h(n)=u(n)\$ and input \$x(n)=u(n)\$. The goal was to find the output of that system ...