A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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2answers
63 views

12-bit output to +/- 10v

Suppose we have a signed 12-bit output which is capable of representing both positive and negative numbers, how can this be converted to a +/- 10v signal using DACs, op-amps, etc. For example, 1100 ...
0
votes
2answers
58 views

How do I determine the start and end of the wave?

I am facing a bit of a challenge in trying to understand basic concepts or terms within the signal world. I have a number of values retrieved from a sampled signal that is generated randomly for no ...
0
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1answer
60 views

Using an earthed function generator with an earthed oscilloscope and ground loops

I have a function generator and I noticed that its DC GND is internally wired to its earth pin. Similarly I have an oscilloscope and I noticed that its DC GND is also internally wired to its earth ...
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1answer
31 views

Lock-in amplifier output to spectrum analyzer

In several lock-in amp tutorials and experiments (including at the end of “Physics 111: Low Light Signal Measurements” on Youtube), the lock-in amp X or Y output is applied directly to a spectrum ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Analog signal vs. Alternating current

I am seeing that both of the analog signal and alternating current is represented by the same graph: As far as I think I know, an alternating current travels back and forth with gradual changes in ...
0
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1answer
26 views

Actual procedure used to establish a MW link budget in telecom?

If it possible can someone share with me the actual procedure used (Not the theoretical steps in book !) like in Huawei or others telecom vendor to establish a Microwave Link between to sites Like ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

In a Delta-Sigma ADC, does noise shaping bring the noise to the signal's frequency?

I'm trying to understand the Delta-Sigma ADC. It is known that it pushes the quantization noise to be in the higher frequencies (noise shaping). Since I don't quite understand how this works, I ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

3.3V to 5V logic converter using p-channel mosfet

I am trying to convert a 3.3V logic signal to 5V logic signal. I am using a p-channel MOSFET and I can not get it to send the full 5V signal through. Below is the circuit I am using.
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0answers
23 views

Low pass filter for differential signals

I'm building an adc and amplifier circuit for sensing a differential signal out of a pressure sensor. My plan is to use a circuit very similar to what is seen below: The total differential output ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Determining Sampling Rate of Analog Signal from Modulated Signal

I'm studying for a final and have a question. The image above contains a graph of time and signal duration. I'm used to seeing the PWM/PPM/PCM/etc rather than this type of graph. Am I correct in ...
-5
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0answers
15 views

costructing a difference equation's signal flow diagram

I need a detailed answer to this question, because many students have vary answers. My answer is shown below the question, my friends are telling me that this one is wrong... Tell if it is wrong and ...
-4
votes
1answer
62 views

Problem with implementation XAPP495 [closed]

I'm working on XAPP495 to show a signal which is throughput of a HDMI signal from my Laptop I do this steps: created a new ISE project added all of the .v files from XAPP495 added dvi_demo.ucf set ...
0
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0answers
11 views

PartSim - Not possible to view full waveform range

I would never normally ask something like this on here but have been struggling for a while. I'm not sure if i'm missing something obvious but I have the circuit below. When the wire is disconnected ...
2
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0answers
78 views

Q: What is the power of this signal

Determinate the power of the discrete signal: $$x[n] = u[n] + (-1)^n + (\frac{-1}3) ^n * u[n]$$ where: $$u[n] = \begin{cases} \ 1, & n \ge 0 \\[2ex] 0, & n \lt 0 \end{cases}$$ The answer ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

generating a 10mVpp signal from computer

I have an input to a system that requires a 10mVpp max signal. I have to use my computer to input it due to constraints out of my control. I am well aware an audio card cannot go down that low. I ...
0
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0answers
45 views

How to calculate transmission capacity of a channel?

So I have the following question: "If a transmission channel uses an analog carrier wave that is modulated by eight amplitudes and sixteen frequencies per bit time, then what is the transmission ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Noise can be Differential or Common!

I have a basic understanding on this topic but i still have some doubts, my text books says Differential means it will have impact on one of the 2 signal nodes. and Common will have a common impact on ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Help with drawing small signal circuit model

I am working on a small question regarding small signal circuit. All mosfets are in saturation. I drawn a small signal model myself as below: If connect node Y to node V(Y) so as to link them ...
7
votes
7answers
947 views

Why is one return conductor for each forward conductor in a ribbon cable better than a shared return conductor?

I don't understand why second way of implementing is better than the first one? I have my own basic logic regarding this topic, but i am not confident if what i think is correct! so i was looking ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

How to evaluate quality of signal?

guys. I'm trying to evalute received signals from a transceiver. I'm a rookie in wireless communication. So I hope that you guys can help me out. I want to make a threshold of received signal so that ...
3
votes
2answers
52 views

Band-pass filter with a given impulse response (Matlab)

I am trying to pass a .wav sound waveform through a band pass filter whose impulse response is given by \$ h(t)=50u(t) \exp(-10t) \sin(2 \pi 440t), \$ I have imported the file into Matlab as ...
8
votes
3answers
572 views

Chokes vs. small capacitors on signal cables

I know that many signal cables (usb camera to computer cables, etc.) have bulky ferrite chokes on them to prevent noise. Why do they all have ferrites instead of ceramic capacitors? Small ceramics ...
1
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0answers
34 views

how to sample and modulate a gps gold code

I am trying to simulate the data transmission of a GPS satellite. Telecommunications is not my field so I am struggling a bit with some concepts. I managed to generate the Gold code of the GPS ...
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2answers
53 views

Fourier Series Coefficients Calculation

Could someone tell me where my calculation is going wrong? So I integrate $$\int_{-1}^1te^{-jn \pi\ t}\ dt$$ and get $$\frac{e^{-jn \pi\ }}{-jn \pi\ }\text{+}\frac{e^{-jn \pi\ }}{-(jn \pi\ ...
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1answer
52 views

\$e^{i2\pi Nf_snT}=1\$ why?

Why is: \$e^{i2\pi Nf_snT}=1\$ in snippet from book
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votes
1answer
52 views

Is it possible to measure Spinal Cord electrical activity over skin? [closed]

sorry if this is not the right place to ask this question. I'd like to know the possibility and reliability of measuring electrical activity of spinal cord (specially the cervical region) if it's ...
0
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0answers
28 views

difference between rising and falling time from the pulse response of transmission line

Attached is output pulse response of a transmission line (s-parameter). In the high-speed serial link design, we usually see more # of post-cursur ISI than pre-cursor ISI. One of the main reason is ...
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2answers
66 views

On board signal termination

and thanks for bothering with my problem. I have a two signals A and B that I want to route using several alternative paths via jumpers on my board. In one of the occasions I need to use the same ...
-1
votes
0answers
38 views

complex signals and modulated signals [duplicate]

I'm taking an intro electrical engineering class in an online university and have come across something that is confusing, at least to me, since the text we are using does not go into detail about ...
1
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1answer
53 views

How frequency generator in telephone works

I was doing some research, on how telephone works, and I found that when user, click numbers they are converted to frequency and passed to wire. I want to know how the frequency generator work, what ...
0
votes
2answers
89 views

Ambilight without computer - µC [closed]

Firstly, sorry for my english. I'm not very confident with this language but i'll try to give my best for you guys :). So, now i will talk about my main problem. For my school project, i have to ...
-1
votes
4answers
128 views

What analog circuit i should use to shifting a signal from -5..5v into 0..10v? [duplicate]

I want to output my circuit from -5..5v into 0..10v. My circuit generate -5..5v. What should i do to generate that signal? what analog circuit i should use? thanks
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Some confusion about differential-ended data acquisition system

I have many transducers which all have single-ended signal outputs. I hook them up to a single-ended DAQ board. A board with 16 single-ended inputs. The DAQ bard is currently set to single-ended ...
0
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0answers
34 views

Low Frequency signal detector with MOSFETs

Does anyone have any ideas on creating a very basic signal detector (low frequency is fine) with MOSFETs? trying to design a small profile detector. My idea was to use a basic field strength meter, ...
1
vote
2answers
63 views

Copying/imitating wireless garage opener radio signal

I aim to be able to copy my garage door opener onto another device, but for that to be doable I first have to be able to recreate the radio signal that is sent from the garage opener. Is there any ...
1
vote
3answers
62 views

Emulate the effect of a lock-in amplifier on a signal with a programming script

I'm working on a gas emission sensing project in the lab which requires the extraction of a signal in a really noisy environment. The features of interests of my signal are much smaller than the noise ...
0
votes
2answers
87 views

Arduino signal conditioning

I'm doing a project with an Arduino. I read a voltage from a tachometer connected to a generator. The nominal max output is 21V at 1000 rpm. The generator is managed so that the maximum tachometer ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

vhdl - convert a signal to integer

I have looked around on SE but couldn t find anything that worked properly for me. I am looking for a way to convert a 4 bit signal_vector to an integer. However I do calculations on signals as well. ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Do wireless amplifiers work in both directions?

I'm especially wondering about wifi aplifiers (2.4GHz and 5GHz). I have a couple of very basic questions about them. (I hope this is not too much for a single question): Are there special signal ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Bandwidth difference between a transmission medium and a given signal

What's the main difference between the bandwidth of a transmission medium and a given signal? Don't they both follow the same formula, i.e. Bandwidth = highest frequency - lowest frequency?
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Steady State Error: why we use a negative feedback rather than a single gain to reduce the error?

I'm studying signal analysis, and we reached a topic of correcting and enhancing a system with the following transfer function : $$ \frac{Y(s)}{U(s)} = \frac{2}{s^2 + 5s + 6} $$ with \$U(s) = ...
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

Digital Signal processing-Sampled period

Please can you help me with exam test preparation. I have take the below past year exam paper. I want to know if I am on the correct track and my answers are correct. x(t) = cos(50.pi.t + 30) ...
-3
votes
1answer
98 views

Help determining power and energy of various signals [closed]

I need a bit of help. My problem is to determine the energy and power of each of the following signals: ...
1
vote
1answer
117 views

What is the FM threshold effect?

I came across a picture ( shown below ) comparing the SNRs of FM and AM. There was also some explanation of the FM threshold effect and how the threshold effect is the reason as to why the FM graphs ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

External ADC and FIFO

I have a Micro-controller with ADC input range 0V to 3.6V(12 bit). I need to measure a voltage signal in the range of -10V to +10V. So i chose the option of using an external ADC instead of the ...
0
votes
2answers
86 views

signal conditioning 0 to (-40) volt to 0-5 volt, arduino

I want to convert my 0 to (-40 )v signal to be 0-5 volt so that i can measure it using arduino, i want to attenuate the signal first by the factor of 8 and then shift it up by the arduino 5 volt. ...
3
votes
2answers
104 views

Trouble with Schimtt trigger settings for varying sinusoidal inputs

To make my problem easier to describe, I drew the above figures (abbreviated as Fig.). The sinusoidal input comes from a rotating device, from a small alternator(a permanent magnet AC generator). ...
3
votes
1answer
118 views

Alarm sound signal arduino

My vehicle alarm consists of a control box containing some vibration sensor and relays, and a buzzer that creates an ear piercing sound upon triggering. I've recorded this alarm sound. After pulling ...
0
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0answers
40 views

Signal generator showing an atypical noise power spectral density

As an orientation exercise in the new lab I have started working in, I was tasked with characterizing the phase noise spectrum of some of the signal generators present in the lab. Doing so made me use ...
-2
votes
1answer
64 views

multiplication of a periodic signal by rectangular pulse

Here is the shape of rectangular pulse and sin(pi*t) in time domain I am trying to sketch this signal, but I kind of don't fully understand the concept. since the two signal are multiplied in ...