A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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17 views

Is GNSS S/N equivalent to C/N?

I work in developing software that integrates with GPS receivers. I've struggled for years with inconsistencies in documentation for the NMEA emitted by such receivers, and I've decided to put it to ...
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0answers
17 views

Modelling Phase noise

I am trying to model phase noise. However, when i apply the fft and see the noisy signal, frequency peak location is changing however the spectrum is not broadening. Can anyone enlighten me what is ...
1
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1answer
85 views

Wi-Fi transmitter/receiver in close proximity: Override interference?

I'd like to control a camera via Wi-Fi (zoom, trigger shutter, etc.), and possibly also capture a live video stream. This will be at an event with a huge number of Wi-Fi devices, and connectivity is ...
0
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4answers
72 views

Read -5V Signal with Microcontroller

I have the following problem. I want to read an -5V Signal using my Microcontroller. I have the following circuit setup, but it does not work. My problem is that the the signal is high while the ...
0
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1answer
19 views

3.5mm Stereo output to 3.5mm mic input crossover

I have two devices, each with two 3.5mm jacks for the usual audio out / in. I need a way to cross-over between the two, such that the stereo output of one, goes to the mic input of the other. I have ...
2
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1answer
31 views

How do electrical signals not get out of sync in CPUs and other integrated circuits?

I'm a newbie at electronics and this question has kept me occupied for a while: How do electrical signals not get out of sync in integrated circuits and CPUs? For example, let's take a look at 3 bit ...
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1answer
53 views

About the combination of two signals with capacitors

Here is a link of an article I've been reading. http://www.analoguehaven.com/moog/thereminblack/hotrod.pdf In page 4 there is a circuit schematic. Notice there is a part called variable pitch ...
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0answers
35 views

Need help with getting 95% ellipse area of 2D PSR plot [closed]

So I have been referring to the method of obtaining this as outlined in this paper (pg 4 - 5). I have implemented the following matlab code to obtain it: ...
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1answer
38 views

When are meanders necessary? and how to calculate timing differences

I've found that meanders are used for high speed traces like RAMs wires and are also used for coupled wires like in the usb. My question is, how I know when I should use meanders to keep track ...
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2answers
130 views

How to isolate two signals from each other if they use the same power source?

See the very simplified schematic down. As what you can see: Two inputs are in the form of a DC signal. We operate each input individually. RL represents a motor. The two inputs are initialized by a ...
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4answers
85 views

Are radio stations with higher frequency able to transmit higher quality audio?

e.g. a radio station at 100 mhz on FM vs a 50 mhz radio station. Wouldn't the latter have a lower bandwidth therefore lower quality audio/bit rate? If this is true, this must also mean that 2.4ghz ...
1
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1answer
49 views

ADC samples half frequency

I'm using a dsPIC33F (Microchip) to sample a 555-timer signal. I've tried square, triangular, and "sinusoidal" signal shapes, but always have the same problem: the ADC samples the waveform correctly, ...
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2answers
100 views

Is there any simple way or trick to express given signal using waveforms of sum of simple sinusoidal signals?

We know that Fourier series for periodic signal \$y(t)\$ is given by $$ y(t) = \sum\limits_{m=0}^{+\infty} a_m \cos(w_m t) + \sum\limits_{m=0}^{+\infty}b_m \sin(w_m t). \quad$$ y(t) is sinusoidal ...
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0answers
32 views

Unknown voltage oscillations in sensor data acquired by NI 9234 DAq module.

I am using a National Instruments 9234 Data Acquisition module for the measurement of voltage across my pressure sensor which is used to sense the pressure on it by measuring the voltage across it. ...
3
votes
2answers
71 views

Coaxial cable vs shielded pair

I need to wire a sensor with analog output to an acquisition system, and the presence of a separate "shield" connection on the DAQ made me thinking: why would I use a shielded 2-wire cable versus a ...
0
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1answer
30 views

Can a PLL work with a sine signal as its XIN?

I need to generate a 150.012MHz signal. I am going to this with a PLL for RF purposes, so I am thinking to buy a 10Mhz osc with a sine output, will this work with all PLLs? as they are digital I'm not ...
3
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2answers
89 views

Best way to count glass marbles

I've got a reason to count a number of marbles in a game. Up to about 100. I can feed them down a track one at a time. I can ensure that they each go down separately, although I can't accurately ...
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2answers
102 views

Understanding alternating current (sine wave) [closed]

I want to study the basics of propagating a periodic signal, i.e. sine waveform, which is a power signal. Let us consider an alternating current and write its expression as $$I(t) = I_m \sin(2\pi f ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Intel Integrated Audio Signal Path [migrated]

I have a Dell Latitude C840 laptop. It has Intel Integrated Audio. Intel 82801 CA/CAM AC'97 Audio Controller. It has been giving me problems. Sometimes I get chopped or truncated audio, or strange ...
2
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1answer
76 views

How tuning of particular FM signal is done?

I have a transistor radio which has facility to play FM radio channels between 88MHz to 108MHz frequencies. Now,consider a situation ,there are five FM stations which I can hear in my city ...
1
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1answer
99 views

How to amplify a very small signal

I am trying to wrap my mind around very small signals; what they mean, and how to amplify them. For example, here is a screenshot from my cell phone. Notice the signal level received is -97dBm. ...
2
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2answers
111 views

What are values of fundamental frequency and the harmonics for the below signal g(t)?

We know that a Fourier series formula for any signal $s(t)$ is given as $$\frac {a_0} 2 + \sum \limits _{m=1} ^\infty (a_m \cos \frac {2 \pi m t} T + b_m \sin \frac {2 \pi m t} T)$$ Here,as we see ...
2
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1answer
86 views

Signal on top of PWR line

See edits at bottom: I'm trying to design a network of circuits (see example below), in which a modular circuit (non-static, can be change, with high variability in current draw) is connected on any ...
0
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1answer
33 views

Usefulness of VBW in spectrum analyzer

Typically in the block scheme of a spectrum analyzer a video filter, with a bandwidth VBW, is located after the envelope detector and before the screen. As pointed out in this document, the VBW may ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Monitoring voltage state without interfering

I have a CO2 laser cutter, and I am designing as circuit to turn on some outlets whenever the laser is firing. The laser is turned on by a 5V logic connection to the high voltage power supply. If I ...
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0answers
22 views

ISE 14.7 fatal error problem

I am having fatal error problem in ISE 14.7. I checked out for this problem and got here: http://www.xilinx.com/support/answers/33423.html It says that this error can also occur if the simulator ...
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1answer
117 views

Transmission line: Why do longer traces cause signal reflections?

As the question says, I want to know why do longer traces/longer lengths of non-terminated signals of the PCB cause reflections and not the short length ones? I am ignoring the negligible amount of ...
0
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1answer
32 views

How to determine servo signal encoding

I have a TowerPro SG90 servo which matches the "JR" brand wiring discussed here where the servo's 3 wires are as follows: Red is + Black is ...
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3answers
105 views

Why signal is inverted in common emitter amplifier?

Why signal is inverted in a common emitter amplifier?
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1answer
65 views

Calculating attenuation of coax cable run

This question is related to my question about long-distance Ethernet. I discovered the Netsys NH-310C, a reasonably-priced device for converting Ethernet to coax for long-distance runs. The ...
0
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2answers
31 views

Explanation of the result of a solved exercise concerning the unit step response of a system

I came across a solved exercise regarding Signals and Systems in which there is a system with impulse response \$h(n)=u(n)\$ and input \$x(n)=u(n)\$. The goal was to find the output of that system ...
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0answers
32 views

Problem while linking flip flop D in VHDL

I have defined a single Dflipflop with the following code (and I suppose It works): ...
0
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1answer
30 views

Can signal arrival times be a function of receiver bandwidth?

Lets assume that the speed of light is exactly \$3\!\left(\!10^{8}\!\right)\text{meters}/\text{second}\$. Suppose we have a transmitter on the surface of the earth emitting a signal at 1000 MHz and ...
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1answer
41 views

Safe way to interface directly with HomePlug / Powerline

I'm looking to do some research into the actual messaging used by powerline adapters. I'm aware of the standards, but I'm specifically looking to see where real devices deviate from the standard, and ...
0
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0answers
25 views

What is a cheap way of isolating a large parallel plate capacitor from background fields

I am making liquid level detector that will rely on a change in capacitance to determine the changing heights of various solutions in a tube placed between two stainless steel plates(20cm x 12cm). I ...
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1answer
87 views

Determining zeros and poles from an equation [closed]

I'm given an equation \$y(n) = a_0 {x(n)} + a_1 {x(n-1)} + a_2{x(n-2)}\$ which is used to design a simple filter to remove a narrowband disturbance with frequency \$F_0\$ = 70 Hz. I'm told to let the ...
2
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1answer
87 views

Questions on this high frequency sawtooth generator

So I found this very basic sawtooth generator: http://www.radiolocman.com/shem/schematics.html?di=143990 I have a few questions about it: I understand that when the capacitor C_T charges fully to ...
0
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1answer
38 views

Using an unconnected audio splitter degrades audio signal quality?

Consider that you have one of the following: These are used to connect 2 male audio connectors into only one female connection. Since I can't find, for now, where I have the audio cable extension, ...
3
votes
2answers
389 views

Obtain an accurate DC value in an AC+DC signal

Background: My goal is to use an Arduino with two proximity probe sensors to achieve some output. It is worth mentioning that the output of the proximity probe has two components: DC output that ...
0
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2answers
62 views

What makes an arbitrary waveform generator arbitrary?

Why are some signal or waveform generators called "Arbitrary Waveform Generators"? Am I misunderstanding the word arbitrary? This question is not necessarily about the word arbitrary but more about ...
2
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3answers
125 views

Measure human voice for ambient noise level

I need to develop an ambient noise level to measure the loduness in an office. Sometimes during the day people raise their voice more than they should and a lot of confusion is created. So this device ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Convert DC 0 to +1V signal to -1 to +1 signal

I need to convert a 0V to 1V measurement signal to -1 to +1 volt. What is the best way of achieving this? I've tried searching but can't seem to find anything relevant, as I'm not entirely sure what ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Sonar single transducer element SNR vs array SNR

Background: I'm taking a flexible learning unit on radar and sonar systems in a vocational college for an assoc. degree level course. The teacher has given us a reading assignment: "Chapter 15 ...
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1answer
167 views

Noise on TL074 / TL084 but not on LM324

I made a circuit that modifies a signal so it can be safely read by an ADC. I'm using an op amp to shift the signal +2.5V so I can measure AC. When I do this shift another signal appears. About 40mV ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Another motorcycle project: gear selection indicator [closed]

I have another little project that I have been thinking of making, but am having some trouble with the circuit design. In a nutshell, here is what I am envisioning: Objective: Create an electronic ...
0
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1answer
79 views

Help for VR sensor signal conditioning (variable reluctance signal conditioning)

im trying create a CDI/TCI unit for my Suzuki Bandit GSF400. i need some help for VR sensor signal conditioning section. this is the disc that generate the pulse signal. i have found this image ...
2
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2answers
63 views

Calculating Power of a Non-Continuous Signal

I have to find the power of the following signal and would like to know if I'm doing this right or, if I'm doing it wrong, how to do it. The equation for power in my textbook is \$\overline{m^2(t)} = ...
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2answers
48 views

Sending identification signal with IR or RF

Is there any way to build a device capable of sending an ID signal with IR or RF? For example, imagine I want my TV to know whose remote is being used (assuming everyone has a different remote). I ...
0
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0answers
42 views

Hack Quartz Clock Movement with Chronodot

I'm working on creating a clock design that will use an off the shelf Quartz Crystal Clock Movement. I know they are not all that accurate and was thinking of a way to make it more accurate. My ...
0
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0answers
62 views

Splitting Digital RGB Signal Line to multiple LED strips

I am trying to connect multiple strings of WS2812B RGB LEDs to the same signal line (so that they will all behave the same way, display the same colors, etc). The WS2812B is very time sensitive, so I ...