Theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context

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How does the Wien Bridge Oscillator circuit work

I've built a Wien Bridge Oscillator circuit and used it to generate low-distortion sine waves. But I don't understand how this circuit work. I've read through many resources but yet, I can't ...
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2answers
50 views

Two batteries connected to a resistor

In the circuit shown here the conventional current direction is from V2 to V1 and is equal to 3 Amp. I understand the theory. But, if I make this circuit with two batteries, according to the schematic ...
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36 views

How does a cascode or beta-enhanced voltage amplification stage work?

I'm studying electrical engineering and we just finished a project where we had to build a power amplifier. But I think I can do better than what we did. I read Distortion In Power Amplifiers where ...
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1answer
36 views

Understanding microphone sensitivity

My goal is to figure out a relation between output voltage and input SPL: $$dB(SPL) = f(V_{out})$$ First, I get the sensitivity in volts from this formula: $$Sensitivity_{dB(V)} = 20 * log_{10} ...
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39 views

Calculating Ro in this circuit?

Consider the following circuit: I am asked to prove that Ro = R2 || Rf. I'm assuming that Ro is the output resistance (the resistance when looking in from the output side). To calculate this, I ...
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2answers
42 views

Is this measurement of a cricuit's output impedance valid?

The following circuit is a simple voltage regulator. The Vout is maintained at -1V, however the opamp in the circuit has a non-zero output impedance. This is represented by the resistor R1. ...
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1answer
68 views

What is the explanation with shorting vcc and gnd to power up the whole circuit in a breadboard? [closed]

I was building a logic circuitry that performs 8 bit multiplier 16 bit divider using decoders as finite state machine in breadboards. the circuit is a bit large and i wonder why grounds or low voltage ...
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2answers
70 views

How to analyitically optimize an RLC “circuit” to reduce overshoot?

I have a "circuit," that's not really an electrical circuit but rather a physical process that follows the same functional form as an RLC circuit with regards to how it responds to ...
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3answers
94 views

Understanding optocoupler performance with collecor or emitter resistors

When using an optocoupler, is there a difference performance'wise whether using a collector or an emitter resistor? When using a normal transistor the base to emitter voltage gain is approximately 1, ...
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3answers
124 views

Could sawtooth waveform be optimal for transformer input?

All the transformer theory I have reviewed uses sinusoidal waveforms, and concludes that a true sinusoidal input is optimal. But I'm wondering whether a sawtooth waveform would actually be optimal in ...
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2answers
81 views

Is there a theoretical limit to power supply transformation efficiency?

As I'm looking at some resistive-load applications I'm wondering whether there are any rules that put an upper-limit on supply-matching efficiency. Because if a load isn't matched to the power supply ...
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2answers
40 views

Is symmetrical current perfectly symmetrical beyond analysis? [closed]

Lets suppose that a circuit was constructed with almost identical components and wires to a ridiculous accuracy. When we say that a current is equal due to symmetry after a branch in a node with ...
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2answers
453 views

Does changing the Voltage and the Current passing through an LED affect the result in the same way?

More directly : passing electricity that is 0.5 times the amperage of the one required will make the LED half bright, right? Is it the same with halving its voltage requirement? Or will it not turn on ...
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1answer
78 views

How microprossesor perfoms substration by 2's complement

How microprossesor perfoms substration by 2's complement for 5 + (-3) ? I know this might be basic, but to be honest I didn't get it at all. ...
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23 views

Change in induced EMF due to change in wire connection?

A copper slab moving inside a magnetic field: I can calculate the induced EMF(vBL) and given the resistance of the load, can calculate the current. However, I'm curious with how the ...
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1answer
67 views

A way to cancel/or harness back-emf?

In systems where there is back-emf induced to oppose the applied voltage, or to change it in cases of power converters, is there a direct way to cancel back-emf or harness it back? The simplest way ...
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1answer
31 views

Analysis of the effect a opposing voltage source has to a buck-converter's output?

I have two voltage sources Vps and V1 connected in series: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab There is also Load(1) connected which I believe is in series as ...
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2answers
87 views

finding the gain of a two stage voltage amplifier

i currently do not know how to approach this question, in terms of simplifying the circuit and which formulas to use in order to find the gain
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5answers
157 views

Explanation of 2nd order transfer function

I am reading about the 2nd order transfer function of a 2nd order system (like the mass-spring-damper system). I am constantly seeing the following form as the standard one: \begin{equation} H(s) = ...
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1answer
72 views

Why thevinin is applied to voltage source

Why do we use superposition with independent voltage source? and it isn't linear(I mean homogeneity and additivity). EX: independent Voltage source V = 4 volts is not linear(homogeneity and ...
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1answer
60 views

Using superposition to solve circuit with one voltage source and a dependent source

If i use super position to solve a circuit with one voltage source and one current dependent voltage source, does it make sense to use superposition to eliminate the independent voltage source, and do ...
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1answer
48 views

Calculations: Antenna specs; SWR, Bandwidth, Rad.Eff, Q-factor

Is it possible to give approx. answers about what an antenna is capable of? There is a lot of formuals out there, but every single one I found is based on actual measurement; input, output, SWR ...
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2answers
110 views

Control theory: is there any actual application for D in ABCD matrix?

Recall that a LTI state space of a dynamical system is given as: Is there any actual purpose for D in the output equation? If D was not zero, it would mean that the output is "directly" ...
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1answer
41 views

Simple Analogy for Impedance and Load?

Can someone explain what impedance and load really are? I have a textbook in front of me and I have taken and passed the EE class on it, but aside from a textbook definition I can't seem to get a ...
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3answers
76 views

Simple Theory question about Circuit Analysis

I have the following circuit. I calculated it's transfer function, in the common way, to be: \$ \frac{Vo(s)}{E(s)} = \frac{-R_3}{s\ R_2R_4C + R_2} \$ Then i thought something else. Since there's ...
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2answers
187 views

Why is this a 7th order circuit?

This is the circuit: I saw it in a book. It said that this is a 7th order circuit. From theory we know that the order of linear passive circuits is determined by the sum of capacitors and ...
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1answer
76 views

Homework: DC circuit help

I need help with the following problem: Find range of resistance R4 and voltage U4 so that the range of current I is $$I \in [-3A,-1A]$$ E=5V, E4=6V, Ig=1A, Ig4=-3A, R1=2ohm, ...
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51 views

Increasing voltage noise but decreasing current noise with rising resistance

Consider the two (equivalent) formulas for the noise power spectra of a ohmic resistor: $$W_u(f)=4kT\cdot R~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(1)$$ and $$W_i(f)=4kT\cdot ...
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2answers
69 views

Control: what is the proper justification that you can't just make the output equal to the input if the system produces unstable output

Suppose we have a signal, it goes into the plant and generates an unstable response, a common question then arise at that point is why can't we just set our output to a "hard-coded" input. Think of ...
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1answer
326 views

Norton's and Thevenin's theorems importance

Are Norton's and Thevenin's theorems used in real life? And in which situations? I'm reading a circuit analysis book and I asked myself: do electrical engineers use these theorems to get current and ...
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7answers
532 views

What makes a circuit digital?

I've been trying to understand how a circuit becomes digital. I understand the different between an analog signal and a digital signal, but I don't see where digital circuits come from if all the ...
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2answers
806 views

Why isn't a transformer a short circuit?

I'm a newbie with electronic components and I never fully understood why transformers, while essentially being a short-circuit from a wire perspective, don't act like short circuits (i.e. they don't ...
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2answers
78 views

Physical changes caused by charge pump

Charge pumps are very cool circuits because they challenge my ideas about how voltage works. I'm very comfortable with the math behind line integrals, so to define "voltage" as the work done to move ...
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56 views

Solving the equation for Common Drain

So I've designed an all NMOS amplifier to further voltage amplify the 5V max output of an Opamp to 24V rails. I used a Common Source at the very end so I'll have a very low output Impedance. Of ...
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1answer
52 views

Channel Coding with Higher modulation

Just had a theoretical question. I'm reading a book on LTE, and I came across an introductory section that talks about using higher modulation with channel coding. I understand that usually using ...
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3answers
91 views

Inductance of toroidal-cylindrical inductor?

If the inductance of a solenoid is \$L_{\text{sol}}=\frac{\mu N^2 A}{l}\$ and the inductance of a toroid is \$L_{\text{tor}}=\frac{\mu N^2 r^2}{D}\$, is it correct to assume that the inductance of a ...
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1answer
138 views

Circuit Impedance

What is the impedance of the following network? My textbook says $$Z = R_i + R + jwL + 1/jwC$$ But I can't seem to make that work.
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1answer
62 views

How does cascoding helps

In order to improve the output impedance of a current mirror emitter resistance are added to them..but on the other way these emitter resistances have certain drawbacks which involve restricting ...
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3answers
91 views

Why does output impedance behaves this way

Why does the output impedance(Ro) of a common emitter amplifier is considered in parallel with the collector resistance(Rc)...as according to the KVL--->Vcc=IcRc+Vce+IeRe they seems to be in ...
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1answer
439 views

How serial resistors actually reduce EMI?

I am recently working with a GSM based system, and there was this advice in the datasheet of the GSM module: 22Ω resistors should be connected in series between the module and the SIM card so as ...
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2answers
156 views

Working of a current mirror as an active load

Ordinary resistor as load in a transistor amplifier has a certain short coming…we cant have voltage and current gain simultaneously ….. In this circuit a current mirror is actings as an active load ...
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2answers
177 views

Help with DC circuit theory problem

I need help with this DC circuit problem: When the switch is open, voltage between points A and B is 2V. When the switch is closed, through variable resistor \$R_{p}\$ flows maximum current, and ...
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1answer
263 views

Wireless Power Transfer Circuit Theory

I made this circuit, and it is working fine. But didn't understood the theory in it. How is it putting a frequency in the coil? It did not match with any of the oscillator circuits. And also it is not ...
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2answers
193 views

Simple transistor circuit

I have been studying transistors and decided to try my knowledge in my lab to find out that nothing works as I thought it would.. I had a small lamp 12V and a handful of 2N3904 transistors, along ...
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1answer
689 views

MATLAB error: “acker” function not returning the same thing as ackermann's formula

I have a discrete time system Suppose I have the following AB matrix of my system $$A = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 1.5 \\ \end{bmatrix} $$ $$B = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ ...
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1answer
81 views

Annoying Biomedical Electrical Engineering Question - How do you relate circuit values to find the distance of the nodes of ranvier?

Question is as follows: I have the electrical circuit drawn as described by the question (ie, the electrical circuit representation of a membrane with Rm1 = 0, Cm1=0 then in series with Rn and a ...
2
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1answer
170 views

Why does Nyquist plot only need loop gain but not the entire closed loop transfer function?

I was trying to compare a Bode plot and a Nyquist plot of the same system and realized that I was probably comparing apples to oranges Bode plot is plotting the entire closed loop transfer function, ...
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1k views

Why pulsed DC passes through a capacitor?

OK, the current flowing through a capacitor equals C*dV/dt, I'm aware of that. What I don't understand is the physics of the process: why does a capacitor pass pulsed DC (0-10V for example) when ...
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2answers
100 views

current flow to vcc

Hi, i want to build an encoder schematic using zener diode, so the input voltage from encoder can more than 5V (using zener 5.1V), if the input voltage from encoder 0V, voltage to uC is 0V, if the ...
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1answer
88 views

no distortion amp circuit, max. (d(Vout)/dt )max< slew rate, why not (d(Vin)/dt)max?

I think slew rate is how fast a circuit can react to a given input. I was asked to find the frequency limit where the output would show no distortion and tried to find it by (d(Vin)/dt)max < slew ...