Theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context

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Can someone demonstrate the passivity property of a RC circuit?

Intuitively, a RC circuit is considered a passive element because it does not require power to operate as contrast to Op-Amps. But the passivity property is most precisely defined via the mathematical ...
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1answer
33 views

MATLAB error: “acker” function not returning the same thing as ackermann's formula

I have a discrete time system Suppose I have the following AB matrix of my system $$A = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 1.5 \\ \end{bmatrix} $$ $$B = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ ...
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1answer
49 views

Why does Nyquist plot only need loop gain but not the entire closed loop transfer function?

I was trying to compare a Bode plot and a Nyquist plot of the same system and realized that I was probably comparing apples to oranges Bode plot is plotting the entire closed loop transfer function, ...
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5answers
634 views

Why pulsed DC passes through a capacitor?

OK, the current flowing through a capacitor equals C*dV/dt, I'm aware of that. What I don't understand is the physics of the process: why does a capacitor pass pulsed DC (0-10V for example) when ...
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2answers
52 views

current flow to vcc

Hi, i want to build an encoder schematic using zener diode, so the input voltage from encoder can more than 5V (using zener 5.1V), if the input voltage from encoder 0V, voltage to uC is 0V, if the ...
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1answer
32 views

no distortion amp circuit, max. (d(Vout)/dt )max< slew rate, why not (d(Vin)/dt)max?

I think slew rate is how fast a circuit can react to a given input. I was asked to find the frequency limit where the output would show no distortion and tried to find it by (d(Vin)/dt)max < slew ...
2
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2answers
106 views

Why would Z/P cancellation with real part > 0 between the plant and the controller make the system unstable?

Can someone help me verify the claim if there is a zero pole cancellation with real part > 0 between controller Gc and plant Gp, then the system is not stable? I can't find any literature that ...
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2answers
53 views

What are some of the real life example of the so called “tracking and regulation” problem in control theory?

Given a plant, we need to design a controller that takes in an input r and then ensure that steady state error between the output and input goes to zero while the system remains stable. What is a ...
2
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2answers
70 views

high side vs low side load control

Background Fairly standard scenario - I have an inductive load (servo or something similar) that I turn on and off as needed (several times per hour, nothing high frequency). In a scenario where the ...
3
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2answers
1k views

Can an electric circuit do recursion?

Can an electric circuit do recursion? By recursion I mean any kind of recursion, tail, binary, nested, etc: http://www.sparknotes.com/cs/recursion/whatisrecursion/section2.rhtml By electric circuit ...
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1answer
67 views

Control theory: What is the physical interpretation of asymptotic stability

For Bounded Input, Bounded Output stability (BIBO), there is a very nice interpretation. All it means is that if for any finite signal the system produces a finite output signal, then the system ...
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0answers
39 views

dBm Conversion to Common and Differential Mode Voltages

This is probably a question with a very simple answer, but it's been bugging me. If I have a signal generator, and I set the RF output to say, +13 dBm with an arbitrary frequency, what is the common ...
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1answer
114 views

How to solve first-order RC circuit?

I've got a question, and I just keep getting myself confused when I try to solve it. The problem asks to find voltage and current and resistor currents transients (the switch is opened at t=0). ...
0
votes
2answers
47 views

Relaxation oscillator period

For an electronics project I am using a Schmitt Trigger relaxation oscillator. The equation for voltage across a capacitor in time t is $$V_c = V_s(1-e^{\frac{-t}{RC}})$$ My Schmitt Trigger uses a ...
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3answers
87 views

8 bit computer graphics [closed]

I'm working on learning how 8 bit computers work and operate. I know you can make a (tedious) microprocessor with a larg amount of logic gates and such, but how does it read graphics? I know this uses ...
4
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1answer
312 views

Caculating baud rate of Ethernet per wire

I'm trying to find the answer to what should be a simple question. How do I calculate the physical rate bits are transmitted on an individual Ethernet wire? I am interested specifically in 100 Mbps ...
2
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1answer
80 views

why ohmic losses increase with resistance?

Electrical newbie here. I'm trying to get understanding how is resistance involved with power dissipation (ohmic losses, eg. heating). Primarily I'm looking at Electromagnet coil, it says the losses ...
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3answers
81 views

How to convert noise to noise density in mic pre amps

I am trying to compare two low noise mic pres for the lowest noise, and I am looking at the TI1012 and MAX9814 MAX9814: ♦ Low Input-Referred Noise Density of 30nV/√Hz TI1012: Output Voltage Noise ...
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7answers
2k views

Why do LEDs have a maximum current?

So I understand that LED's have a maximum current (like 20mA for instance), but scientifically why is this? Using the water analogy it seems like a high voltage would be the thing that would mess up ...
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1answer
32 views

In adaptive signal processing, what does it mean for an arrow to go through a block?

For example, in this case the FIR digital filter has an arrow going through it. This is common in the signal processing comunity but very unintuitive from a control perspective i.e. where is the ...
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1answer
59 views

AC Analysis Mindset [closed]

I'm just trying to solidify my foundational knowledge of ac analysis. So when approached with a basic circuit, lets say a RLC circuit, should my first instinct be to convert each group of components ...
0
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1answer
77 views

Help understanding the function of my circuit. (Bug swatter)

The important thing is the image below. I want to know how it works. Here's what I understand so far. First I'll identify the pieces: -The blue "packet" is a capacitor. Its a \$ 0.030 \mu F\$ ...
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1answer
132 views

Is electronic an exact science? [closed]

Whenever I read or watch any video tutorial about electronics most often it is said that electronic is not an exact science. But what I feel is if it is measurable then it should be an exact science. ...
2
votes
2answers
300 views

Op amp has a biased output

I'm designing an op amp circuit to amplify 20mV, 18kHz square wave up to measurable levels (~2-3V). Why is the output signal: Biased at ~400mV Triangular (high output capacitance? is that a thing?) ...
22
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8answers
6k views

Why do microcontrollers have so little RAM?

Maybe this is more of a perceptional problem, but it seems like microcontrollers have advanced by leaps and bounds in the last 20 years, in almost all regards, higher clock speed, more peripherals, ...
8
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3answers
2k views

Magnet that needs power to turn off? Inverse coil?

I have never heard of such thing. But it would really suit my needs. I'm inventing a device and during it's operation, it should be able to catch an iron object any time (with a permanent magnet). ...
0
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5answers
188 views

What would happen if an ideal voltage source was connected to an ideal wire?

I've seen it mentioned in discussion that an ideal wire doesn't exist (all wires have resistance), but even if it did, an ideal voltage source doesn't exist (all batteries have internal resistance); ...
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2answers
165 views

What is the difference between the substitution principle and Thevenin theorem?

The substitution principle (as seen in this book; in italian, sorry) Let A and B be any two part of an electrical network with voltage and current sources and only resistances, connected by ...
3
votes
4answers
432 views

Why don't infinitely many sinusoidals exist in an oscillator circuit?

A sinusoidal oscillator, takes the ambient thermal noise or any imbalance in the circuit as input and gives out an oscillation. This kind of oscillators are called to be linear. By the nature of a ...
2
votes
2answers
131 views

When is it theoretically possible to fit PCB circuit on x Layers (emphasis: x =1)

When is it theoretically possible to fit a given circuit on a certain number of layers? (Presumably PCB layers.) What is/are the name of the mathematics/algorithms that might determine this, or ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Theory question about “j” imaginary unit (AC circuit analysis)

I have just started to learn about AC network analysis and have some questions about "j" (or "i" on my calculator), the imaginary unit. My book doesn't go into a great deal about this, and jumps ...
7
votes
2answers
772 views

Why do op-amps keep amplifying?

I was reading an old copy of Horowitz and Hill's The Art of Electronics and I am trying to wrap my head around operational amplifiers in negative feedback circuits. As the book explains, as the ...
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1answer
157 views

Would it be practical to build a chip that can do this math?

I was theorizing a new kind of 64-bit number for use in data storage, but then started wondering if it could become practical if created in hardware. (I believe it would be too slow if only software ...
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3answers
110 views

Why doesn't linear resistance scale proportionally with the square of length?

I have an in depth question about basic proportionality of resistance. Why doesn't it scale with the square of length? I ask this because what is causing the potential difference on two leads is ...
0
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1answer
45 views

Absolute and relative permitivitty

Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices - Hasap, pg: 585, he says: $$\epsilon_r = \frac{Q}{Q_0} = \frac{C}{C_0} = \text{relative permittivitty}$$ Then he says: It is important to remember ...
1
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1answer
242 views

Induced dipole moment and 'electronic polarization'

Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices - Hasap, pg: 586, he says: The induced dipole moment depends on the electric field causing it. We define a quantity called the polarizability a to ...
1
vote
3answers
423 views

Is there a maximum possible voltage?

This question got me to wondering if there is a maximum theoretical voltage. It seems to me there's a limit to how much positive or negative charge you could have--say, a container full of electrons ...
3
votes
4answers
523 views

Design vs reality and what to do when they differ

I've been trying to focus a bit more on Analog circuits lately and found that my design and actual results often don't match up exactly. An example is a Pierce oscillator I built a while back, the ...
2
votes
3answers
825 views

How can the SI unit of resistivity [Ωm] be interpreted?

The way I interpret the resistance \$R\$ of a resistor, which has dimensions \$ [\frac{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{A}}] \$ is: how many volts must be applied across the resistor to achieve 1 ampere of ...
2
votes
3answers
129 views

Voltage and Current along a Wire

In this question I am referring to this article. At first I was looking for a physical explanation of the fact that energy or the signal, respectively, travels much faster through a wire than the ...
-1
votes
1answer
100 views

Am I doing this right? (LED's to music)

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I have been charged with designing and making a circuit that makes LEDs brighten or dim to an audio source. At the time I ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Resistivity and resistance. Permittivity and?

We know that resistance is dependent on both the materials resistivity and the geometry of the material. For a cylindrical or rectangular material the resistance is: $$R=\rho*\frac{l}{A}$$ where l ...
0
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2answers
120 views

At what resistance do I not see a voltage drop across a resistor?

If I have a circuit like this and measure the voltage drop across the resistor I get a value, regardless of what resistor I use: However, if I stick a piece of wood in there instead of the resistor ...
0
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3answers
82 views

Is it possible to have a continuous quantized signal or a discrete infinite precision signal?

When converting an analog signal to the digital domain I understand that one does two things. An analog signal is continuous and must be sampled in to discrete time segments (Discretization) The ...
10
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4answers
3k views

Where does U for voltage come from?

I believe in Europe the letter U is commonly used for voltage in (eg.) Ohm's law \$U = I × R \$. I think I understand where the letter V came from, commonly used in North America. But what's the story ...
1
vote
3answers
114 views

Biological 'Black Box' - how to test for underlying logic?

Firstly, I am a neuroscientist - so bear with me! I have a collection of connected brain cells (network) and a means of recording the electrical output, as well as manipulating the input to the ...
5
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1answer
333 views

What are the technical challenges to store electricity from lightning strikes? [duplicate]

I ask myself that question every time I watch a Tesla documentary. So, let's get some answers down so the smart ones can think about it and we can clean-up our environment. There is free electricity ...
11
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7answers
8k views

When people talk about a device “drawing” current, what do they mean? Why do devices under load “draw” more current?

In my (extremely rudimentary) understanding, the amount of current flowing in a circuit is determined by a) its resistance, and b) the voltage of the power source (voltage from beginning to end), ...
1
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1answer
98 views

Radios and Power [closed]

RF newbie here. Lately I've been experimenting with RF. I built some simple oscillators, managing to get a tank circuit working as well as buffering the 1 megahertz output of a tin can oscillator. ...
2
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4answers
191 views

Series/Parallel DC circuit analysis training issue

I'm blocked in this exercise. I don't get how I can compute R1/R2/R3 voltage. Here's the schema : simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab So I was able to calculate ...