May refer to an electromagnetic wave (such as a radio wave) or the PCB manufacturing process of wave soldering.

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2
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1answer
27 views

Measure propagation velocity through finite transmission line

I'm currently trying generate a wave in a circuit but am running into the issue of figuring out exactly how to measure the propagation velocity. The circuit diagram is below L1=L2=L3, C1=C2=C3, ...
-3
votes
1answer
54 views

How to encode and decode electromagnetic waves in binary? [on hold]

If I am not wrong the electromagnetic waves can be produced by opening and closing an electric circuit. (Tell me if I am wrong) Let's say we want to send an electromagnetic wave that has the ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

EM wave polarization check

I am trying to recall the quick way to check the EM polarization theoretically, I mean if I have a wave described as (ssume capital letters are vectorial fields) \begin{equation} \ E = E_o *exp(j* ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Square wave oscillator (up to 5kHz) from -40V to -10V (approximately)

I want to test a depletion mode TFT which has a turn on gate voltage of about -35V and consequently I want to show that this TFT can be used as an inverter and find the maximum frequency at which it ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

How deep can I bury a 1 MHz transmitter

So in designing a deep underground sensor network, my team wants to use a 1 MHz radio, but we cannot determine a way to model the soil, so as to calculate how deep i can bury a radio for showing proof ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Are all antennas traveling wave antennas?

I've been reading a lot about traveling and standing waves, and I am right now reading about traveling wave antennas, to my understanding ALL antennas should be traveling wave antennas, but this is ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

sine, triangle and square wave generator?

I have little experience regarding wave generating circuits. I am aware that there are various circuits that are able to create signals but i would like to know if there is a circuit that can output ...
0
votes
2answers
92 views

Amplitude of an AM wave

A message signal is modulated on a carrier wave of amplitude \$50V\$ using amplitude modulation. The modulation index is given as \$50\%\$. Find the amplitude of the AM wave. I was able to ...
2
votes
2answers
286 views

Why does a metal sheet block all noise, but not when wrapped around a cable?

If I place a flat sheet of aluminum foil between a near-field probe and a noisy wire, the sheet completely blocks the noise. However, if that sheet is then wrapped around the wire, it seems to have no ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Detect incidence angle with an antenna array

Having an antenna array, how can we determine incidence angle of an incoming signal. I know it is related to the phase of the signal in each antenna but I only found information about how to send a ...
0
votes
2answers
81 views

Change AC signal frequency without changing the voltage

I have a non constant -/+1 Volts to -/+7 Volts AC audio signal. I want to design a device that takes this input signal, doubles the frequency, without changing the voltage. So, the output voltage is ...
1
vote
3answers
143 views

Generation of triangle wave at 15KHz frequency

I want to generate a triangle wave with peak value 5V. I am using a 555 timer to generate square wave pulse of frequency 15KHz. Then I passes this square wave through a active integrator ( A opamp ...
0
votes
2answers
101 views

square wave generator on 20MHz

I need a circuit that generates rectangular waves. It shouldn't be lo-hi-lo-hi, but a random sequence of lo-hi-hi-hi-lo-lo is needed. It also has to oscillate like that, at at least 20MHz. I don't ...
3
votes
3answers
219 views

What is the wrong with this simple sine wave generator circuit?

I've designed this circuit myself aiming to generate sine wave at the collector of the transistor, but I doesn't work. the current at the collector is DC. Is it a simulator error or the design is ...
16
votes
12answers
3k views

Do we know what a radio wave looks like?

In precalculus class we are learning about sin/cos/tan/cot/sec/csc and their amplitude, periods and phases shifts. I've studied electronics on and off for about a year. I would like to know if we ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Trying to understand directivity of an ultrasonic sensor

I am trying to understand this plot of directivity from the following link: http://www.nicera.co.jp/pro/ut/pdf/T4010B4(ENG).pdf How do I read this plot? I can say that at 0 degree , the energy ...
1
vote
4answers
109 views

Calculating wavelength of sine wave

I am looking for formula and easy explanation for calculating the wavelength of a sine wave. So far I have not been able to calculate the example I want to do as I could not understand the resources ...
0
votes
2answers
69 views

Sketching Sine Wave in Matlab

I am working with matlab in college and I need to generate sine wave whcih represents signal going through a wire. But its not clear to me what t equals to and how can I multiply \$y\$ by \$t\$ this ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Continuous Wave with flip-flops

What I'm going for is imagine 6 LED outputs, every other one on. (Off first) What I need to have happen is after I toggle on the 1 input to 1, it sets off a chain reaction, like a wave, where every ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

How to use a graph of a wavefunction (psi) to create an approximate graph for potential (U)?

I don't understand how the top graph was used to approximate the bottom graph, could someone please explain to me what was going on? I know that in regions 1, 3, 5, 7, there is no oscillation and ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Finding the Power developed by the Nominal Frequency in FM

Question The sinusoidal signal \$f(t) = \cos(2 \pi f_m t)\$ is applied to the input of an FM system. The corresponding modulation signal output for \$f_m = 1kHz\$, is $$Q(t)=100 \cos(2 ...
0
votes
2answers
112 views

How wireless communication works?

When an AC signal is transmitted through a conductor, direction of flow of electrons is continuously alternated. In wireless communication signal is transmitted through air, in this case which ...
29
votes
5answers
5k views

Can I turn Radio waves into light?

Wikipedia says that the frequency of light is 300 THz. I've made a radio waves transmitter that transmits about 100 MHz. If I increase the frequency of the transmitter to 300 THz, will the antenna ...
1
vote
1answer
193 views

Why do LCD Screens ripple through cameras?

I noticed that when taking pictures of an LCD screen (thank you, laziness to print), that while I look at the LCD screen through the cell phone camera, the screen has both 1) Ripples and 2) Moving ...
1
vote
4answers
346 views

How do you remove negative voltage from a sin, triangle or square wave?

I need square wave without negative voltage. Considering a source which produces square wave (could be function generator or from other circuits) has no ability or I don’t have the control required ...
0
votes
0answers
69 views

Very high speed counter (2GHZ) [duplicate]

I'm trying to build a high speed counter to measure the time delay between two radio waves . I'm thinking of using a MC100EP016A counter which works at a maximum frequency of 1.4 GHz but I cannot find ...
2
votes
2answers
147 views

What phenomena does “Coherence Bandwidth”?

Could anyone please provide a simple explanation of what Coherence Bandwidth means, and how is that related to Delay Spread. I read some articles but they don't help me to form the relation between ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

What will I see in oscilloscope when attempting to analyze Bluetooth or Wi-Fi signals?

I would like to know what will show up if I put bluetooth or wifi carrier signal (2.4GHz family) in a say 50MHz oscilloscope? Am I going to see something like a rectangular block? And the only ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

XR2206 Amplification problem

I'm generating a clean sine wave signal of about 4V of amplitude from the IC XR2206 and I need to amplify the signal to about 10V of amplitude, I'm using the following amplifier: Still, on the ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Plane wave causing TE mode in waveguide

I've been struggling with a problem given to us during a exercise-session of waveguides. First part of the exercise was calculating the electric field inside of a waveguide in the form of 2 parallel ...
0
votes
1answer
175 views

Solving the RMS of waveform

I was asked to find the form factor of this voltage wave: But before getting the form factor, I should know the RMS value and the average value of the waveform. Knowing that the ...
2
votes
3answers
129 views

Voltage and Current along a Wire

In this question I am referring to this article. At first I was looking for a physical explanation of the fact that energy or the signal, respectively, travels much faster through a wire than the ...
2
votes
2answers
218 views

+/- 60V Sawtooth/Triangle/Sine Wave

I'm trying to create a power supply for biasing a Langmuir probe. It needs to run some sort of predictable wave (I need to compute an I-V curve for a plasma, so I need to vary the voltage in a ...
-3
votes
1answer
190 views

Down converting square wave

I'm making some experiences with relaxation oscillators using 74 series. I'm trying to down convert to square wave but I get confused. Let's say I have 50khz square wave frquency generated with a ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

Help Understanding an Autonomous rectifier

Could anyone tell me how does the circuit below work ? It's a autonomous rectifier. Taking the signal between the two output resistors gives a full-wave rectification, and taking it at the output of ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Applying Transmission Line Theory To Plane Waves

I'm working on a project for my E&M class. Our goal is to use transmission line theory to design a "stealth" dielectric layer for some sort of aircraft. I can assume the radar wave is incident ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Scale/offset wave

I have a wave profile stored in a micro-controller that I want to scale and shift with two input arguments. Is it possible to fix an 'absolute' scale (max/min = 1.02 for e.g.) and have an offset that ...
1
vote
2answers
342 views

Full-wave rectified sine wave representation?

Let us suppose I have an input voltage \$V=V_0 \sin(\omega t)\$ connected to a full-wave rectifier bridge which changes the voltage to \$V=V_0|\sin(\omega t)|\$. Now, if I want to work out the voltage ...
0
votes
3answers
137 views

What defines a frequency in electronics?

As Hertz is defined as one cycle per second, what are the requirements of an electric wave to have a certain frequency? What I mean is more lucid in a picture. The black wave has a frequency of about ...
1
vote
2answers
165 views

A new form of modulation? [closed]

On the Wiki site re: Amplitude Modulation, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude_modulation -it states, "It is assumed that \$\omega_m \ << \omega_c\$," ...which means that the ...
0
votes
1answer
474 views

which one is better for smoothing a sine wave: Low pass filters or a serially connected inductor?

Smoothing a sine wave is my main concern in this question. I have a sine wave made by DDS that in higher frequencies shows some steps. Normally in every electronic class it is heard that the best ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

How to make sawtooth wave from square or triangular wave?

I know it is easy to convert a square wave to a triangular wave by an integrator. I know also that they can be made out of Harmonics but I don't know how to make a sawtooth wave form. Having a ...
0
votes
1answer
3k views

How do I save a waveform from ModelSim for later opening/viewing

If I save the waveform, it is saved as a .do file in ModelSim/QuestaSim. This does not help as later I will have to run the simulation to get the wave back anyway! What I am looking for is means by ...
2
votes
2answers
277 views

Why a wave does not enter a cable? Understanding TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry)

I have been doing some TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) measures which involves sending gaussian pulses through a cable and measuring the s11 (reflection) parameter. In this measure, I could see that ...
1
vote
1answer
147 views

Reflection coefficient VS frequency

I was trying to look for the answer of what I think it should be quite a simple question but I haven't found any nice answer (at least any that has convinced me). Here it is: Through a cable ...
0
votes
3answers
382 views

Amplify .7Vpp square wave to 5Vpp square wave buffered to go over a 15-50 foot cable

I've got a sensor that outputs a .7Vpp square wave at 36kHz-60kHz. I need to take that square wave and amplify it to 5Vpp, as close to 0V to 5V rails as possible. Then I need to send that signal ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Square Wave Amplifier - 5VDC -> 13VDC

I want to have a square wave that goes from 0 VDC to 5VDC go through some sort of amplifier and that amplification takes that same wave ( at a frequency of 1200Hz but could also be adjusted later ) ...
6
votes
2answers
692 views

How to generate 30Hz sine wave?

I'm building a voice ring modulator. Part of it involves a 30Hz carrier sine wave to modulate the voice with. Since I'm trying to build a portable device it will be DC powered, and since a function ...
0
votes
1answer
144 views

is it possible to load a transversal wave with a longitudinal wave

like in communication engineering for sending information what we do, we take a high frequency carrier and modulate it with the message signal so can we do the same thing like take a high frequency ...
0
votes
1answer
151 views

12 volt DC to 12 volt AC sine wave inverters for 10 watt and 22 watt pumps

I have two 12 volt AC small water pumps that I want to run on 12 volt DC (solar). One pump is rated 6 watts (max ~10 watts) and the other pump is rated 16 watts (max ~22 watts). Since I need to ...