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3

MCUs that have internal RC oscillators are typically calibrated by storing a number in non-volatile memory that trims the oscillator frequency. That number might be used directly, but more often it is loaded into a register to trim the hardware oscillator. The calibration is done in testing. As a rough example, the total range (hardware limited) might be ...


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The simple and basic answer is no. There is typically nothing inside a CPU chip that requires any kind of "calibration". CPU chips are certainly tested to confirm they operate properly. And many are "graded" for speed and/or other operational parameters.


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In a CPU per se, no part requires calibration. Pure digital logic does not need it. In a microcontroller (combination of CPU+periperals in a single chip), the only parts that would need calibration would be the internal oscillators, and eventually a few specific elements for particular peripherals (internal references for ADC/DAC, maybe some internal ...


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First let me define a simple Register INPUTS: Write,Data_in[16],CLK OUTPUTS: Data_out[16] IF the Write pin is HIGH, the data in the Data_in[16] will be stored in this register the next clock cycle (Rising or falling edge) The Write pin is connected to the DMUX outputs so you can choose one of the 8 registers to write by providing the proper select ...


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You have a few options: Leave the port as it is. In micro controllers, you need to enable the UART module before you can read or send data through it. Ground the RX pin of the module. If any data arrives, it won't enter the module. This should be sufficient if you are confident no one would bother modding the PCB to cut it off from ground. If you are still ...


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An external 16550 UART, like this one, performs a conversion of the UART's serial data to and from parallel ports that can be read by a microprocessor/microcontroller. It is addressed as any external parallel I/O port, and has control registers for setting various modes, another for baud rate, another for status, one as a receive (Rx) buffer, and one for a ...


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The manufacturer's reccomendation is always definitive. Outside it, you may have problems; inside it you ought to be fine. I believe that modern systems (AMD and Intel) will self-throttle in order to maintain safe temperatures. This isn't entirely reliable if your cooling system is inadequate, but it will stop it from self-destructing. Temperatures above ...


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This has been done, mainly in graphics context. One early variant was the Blitter chips used in several video games and computers in the 80ies, which allows copying and simple processing without involving the CPU. These chips also had masking operations that allowed leaving out some elements from the operation. The drawback is that since these share access ...



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