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3

Energy in a capacitor = $\dfrac{C\cdot V^2}{2}$ That is the standard formula for the energy stored in a capacitor by virtue of it being charged to V volts. If this energy is liberated (lost) into heat at f times per second then the power liberated is $\dfrac{f\cdot C\cdot V^2}{2}$ Also what is switching frequency in the context of computer ...

1

If you need high quality video, a platform like the Samsung S5PV210 (example, Mini210S from FriendlyARM 11x11cm) is 1GHz and 512M of RAM. Still very small and has CSI/MIPI video and all the usual codecs plus supports a bunch of low cost LCDs. Same company has a smaller sort of business card size. 1.5GHz Exynos Quad core. Linux preferred. Debian available and ...

0

You are not bound to use a microcontroller, you can choose to use a microprocessor (with extrenal RAM, ROM and peripherals). But that will likely be bigger (because you would need more than 1 chip), so I don't get why you would want this. Microcontrollers that use a modern ARM variant (Cortex M0) can be as small as a grain of rice. If that is to big for ...

4

Whilst the other answers are all correct, none of them yet addresses the bitcoin mining example from your question, which is indeed a decent example. Bitcoin mining involves repeatedly calculating a cryptographic hash function, SHA-256 of the result of another SHA-256 calculation, of data where only a single 32-bit integer changes, until the resulting hash ...

10

Markt has this mostly right, but I'm going to throw in my 2 cents here: Imagine that I told you that I wanted to write a program which reversed the order of bits inside of a 32-bit integer. Something like this: int reverseBits(int input) { output = 0; for(int i = 0;i < 32;i++) { // Check if the lowest bit is set if(input & 1 ...

20

CPU's are sequential processing devices. They break an algorithm up into a sequence of operations and execute them one at a time. FPGA's are (or, can be configured as) parallel processing devices. An entire algorithm might be executed in a single tick of the clock, or, worst case, far fewer clock ticks than it takes a sequential processor. One of the ...

1

why doesn't Intel, for example, use a similar technique to combine the CPU and the RAM in one package? They (will) do? Intel's Rajeeb Hazra, a VP and general manager of its data centre group, said Intel would customise high-end Xeon processors and Xeon Phi co-processors by closely integrating memory, both by adding memory dies to a processor package ...

3

Your question makes little sense. You haven't even specified the type of transistor. For bipolar transistors, it is current, not charge (electrons or holes), that turn on the transistor. A small charge thru the base will allow a larger charge to flow thru the collector, but this is a one-time thing and wouldn't make the transistor be "on", whatever that ...

0

You can calculate the number of electrons required to turn on a discrete MOSFET from the gate charge datasheet numbers. It is not a small number. For example, looking at figure 10 of the 2N7002 datasheet we can see that 0.8nC is about enough. The charge of an electron is $1.6\times 10^{-19}$ C, so it takes ~$4 \times 10^9$ electrons. If you're ...

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