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I am currently powering/controlling everything off of a PIC32 microcontrollerthe Hummingboard (which is outputting the audio) and trying to use the dual supply function (+/- 5V supply). I am supplying negative voltage via the use of a voltage converter (LTC660) which is also getting its power also from the PIC32Hummingboard.

Currently I'm testing it by outputting audio from a Hummingboard (Raspberry Pi like device) and insertingwhich is travelling through the analog MUX and being outputted to a RJ9 connector which is connected to aan IP phone, and I'm listening to the output speaker on the IP phone.

(1) Noise on the output - there is a distinct hum that I hear on the speaker when audio is playing through. There are peaks occurring at the 50Hz harmonics.

(2) the ground connected to the voltage converter (-ve voltage provider) is 2mV2-7mV higher than the ground on the PIC32Hummingboard. NOTE: I also have connected 5 op-amps to be used as buffers (RC4558, so 10 buffers really) to the +ve and -ve voltage supplies but haven't connected them to anything yet. (though I know buffers must be used for audio signal routing to maintain signal integrity) as I want to solve this hum problem first, maybe the two are related?

(3) When I run the analog MUX's in a SINGLE power supply configuration (i.e. signal swings between 5V and GND) I am able to hear the audio more clearly as the hum noise level NOTE: Because everything is decreased. I thought audio was an AC signal so it required negative voltage to swing? I'm pretty sure the audio being outputpowered/outputted from the Hummingboard doesn't have a DC offset from looking at its waveform on Audacity so I'm a little confused as to why it single supply works.

NOTE: I did some measurements and the PIC32 hasthus everything is sharing a different ground level from the audio ground (which I am routing through the MUX). When I use the single power supply configuration the GND difference is about ~500mV (audio signal GND is lower). When the dual power supply is in use (+/-5V) the GND difference becomes ~800mV. So I'm not sure if the analog multiplexer is limiting the audio GND level (as i'm routing through theThe audio GND) to -500mV (in and circuit ground are the datasheet it says there's a 10% tolerance) or if there's some other possible reason this is occuringsame.  

(1)

DUAL POWER SUPPLY

SINGLE POWER SUPPLY

Looking at the frequency analysis plot, what is the likelihood that am I experiencing a ground loop in my circuit? The noise seems to peak t 150Hz

NOTE: I'm using star-like grounding and these are the best frequency plots I could produce.

(2) Is the voltage converter's higher ground potential the cause of thismy AC hum? (2mV higher than PIC32 ground even though the converters ground is connected to the PIC32)

(3) Should I be trying to get the audio routing to work with the dual supply (+/-5V) or should I keep going with the single supply since it works better with it?

(42) Could the use of capacitors in series with the audio signal lines help alleviate this problem? i.e. use 10uF or 22uF caps before inputting the analog MUX's? I've been looking at some audio switching schematics and they seem to use capacitors in series for the audio signal lines sometimes

EDIT:

I've managed to get it working OK with the dual rail power supply but noise is still present

High Level Schematic

As you can see I'm trying to choose where to output the SPK and MIC lines from the AUX to the RJ9 connector. For the SPK line, mux 2,3 and 4 are not outputting signals to the lines connected to the the mux 1 output line, thus they are an open switch.

Here's an image of the frequency analysis of the noise recorded on the MIC line.

MIC line noise recording

As you can see the 50Hz harmonics are still prevalent.

NOTE: I am passing the audio GND lines through the analog multiplexer as well to choose what pin it is outputted to. Hence the GND line is seeing a small resistance in series (17Ohms) due to the switch being open. Is this possibly the cause of my AC hum/ground loop, as a difference in ground line resistance will be present? Or is this resistance small enough to be ignored....

Also could it be that if my buffers are outputting voltages slightly lower than what was inputted (due to the +/- 5V dual supply not being high enough) this could cause AC Hum?

I am currently powering/controlling everything off of a PIC32 microcontroller and trying to use the dual supply function (+/- 5V supply). I am supplying negative voltage via the use of a voltage converter (LTC660) which is also getting its power also from the PIC32.

Currently I'm testing it by outputting audio from a Hummingboard (Raspberry Pi like device) and inserting the RJ9 connector to a IP phone and listening to the output speaker on the IP phone.

(1) Noise on the output - there is a distinct hum that I hear on the speaker when audio is playing through.

(2) the ground connected to the voltage converter (-ve voltage provider) is 2mV higher than the ground on the PIC32. NOTE: I also have connected 5 op-amps to be used as buffers (RC4558, so 10 buffers really) to the +ve and -ve voltage supplies but haven't connected them to anything yet (though I know buffers must be used for audio signal routing to maintain signal integrity) as I want to solve this hum problem first, maybe the two are related?

(3) When I run the analog MUX's in a SINGLE power supply configuration (i.e. signal swings between 5V and GND) I am able to hear the audio more clearly as the hum noise level is decreased. I thought audio was an AC signal so it required negative voltage to swing? I'm pretty sure the audio being output from the Hummingboard doesn't have a DC offset from looking at its waveform on Audacity so I'm a little confused as to why it single supply works.

NOTE: I did some measurements and the PIC32 has a different ground level from the audio ground (which I am routing through the MUX). When I use the single power supply configuration the GND difference is about ~500mV (audio signal GND is lower). When the dual power supply is in use (+/-5V) the GND difference becomes ~800mV. So I'm not sure if the analog multiplexer is limiting the audio GND level (as i'm routing through the audio GND) to -500mV (in the datasheet it says there's a 10% tolerance) or if there's some other possible reason this is occuring.  

(1)

DUAL POWER SUPPLY

SINGLE POWER SUPPLY

Looking at the frequency analysis plot, what is the likelihood that am I experiencing a ground loop in my circuit? The noise seems to peak t 150Hz

NOTE: I'm using star-like grounding and these are the best frequency plots I could produce.

(2) Is the voltage converter's higher ground potential the cause of this? (2mV higher than PIC32 ground even though the converters ground is connected to the PIC32)

(3) Should I be trying to get the audio routing to work with the dual supply (+/-5V) or should I keep going with the single supply since it works better with it?

(4) Could the use of capacitors in series with the audio signal lines help alleviate this problem? i.e. use 10uF or 22uF caps before inputting the analog MUX's? I've been looking at some audio switching schematics and they seem to use capacitors in series for the audio signal lines sometimes

EDIT:

I've managed to get it working OK with the dual rail power supply but noise is still present

High Level Schematic

As you can see I'm trying to choose where to output the SPK and MIC lines from the AUX to the RJ9 connector. For the SPK line, mux 2,3 and 4 are not outputting signals to the lines connected to the the mux 1 output line, thus they are an open switch.

I am currently powering/controlling everything off of the Hummingboard (which is outputting the audio) and trying to use the dual supply function (+/- 5V supply). I am supplying negative voltage via the use of a voltage converter (LTC660) which is also getting its power also from the Hummingboard.

Currently I'm testing it by outputting audio from a Hummingboard which is travelling through the analog MUX and being outputted to a RJ9 connector which is connected to an IP phone, and I'm listening to the output speaker on the IP phone.

(1) Noise on the output - there is a distinct hum that I hear on the speaker when audio is playing through. There are peaks occurring at the 50Hz harmonics.

(2) the ground connected to the voltage converter (-ve voltage provider) is 2-7mV higher than the ground on the Hummingboard. NOTE: I also have connected 5 op-amps to be used as buffers (RC4558, so 10 buffers really) to the +ve and -ve voltage supplies.

NOTE: Because everything is powered/outputted from the Hummingboard and thus everything is sharing a ground. The audio GND and circuit ground are the same.

(1) Is the voltage converter's higher ground potential the cause of my AC hum?

(2) Could the use of capacitors in series with the audio signal lines help alleviate this problem? i.e. use 10uF or 22uF caps before inputting the analog MUX's? I've been looking at some audio switching schematics and they seem to use capacitors in series for the audio signal lines sometimes

High Level Schematic

As you can see I'm trying to choose where to output the SPK and MIC lines from the AUX to the RJ9 connector. For the SPK line, mux 2,3 and 4 are not outputting signals to the lines connected to the the mux 1 output line, thus they are an open switch.

Here's an image of the frequency analysis of the noise recorded on the MIC line.

MIC line noise recording

As you can see the 50Hz harmonics are still prevalent.

NOTE: I am passing the audio GND lines through the analog multiplexer as well to choose what pin it is outputted to. Hence the GND line is seeing a small resistance in series (17Ohms) due to the switch being open. Is this possibly the cause of my AC hum/ground loop, as a difference in ground line resistance will be present? Or is this resistance small enough to be ignored....

Also could it be that if my buffers are outputting voltages slightly lower than what was inputted (due to the +/- 5V dual supply not being high enough) this could cause AC Hum?

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DUAL POWER SUPPLY This hum was present when using the dual power supply

SINGLE POWER SUPPLY This hum was present when using the single power supply

(4) Could the use of capacitors in series with the audio signal lines help alleviate this problem? i.e. use 10uF or 22uF caps before inputting the analog MUX's? I've been looking at some audio switching schematics and they seem to use capacitors in series for the audio signal lines sometimes

EDIT:

I've managed to get it working OK with the dual rail power supply but noise is still present

High Level Schematic

Schematic

As you can see I'm trying to choose where to output the SPK and MIC lines from the AUX to the RJ9 connector. For the SPK line, mux 2,3 and 4 are not outputting signals to the lines connected to the the mux 1 output line, thus they are an open switch.

DUAL POWER SUPPLY This hum was present when using the dual power supply

SINGLE POWER SUPPLY This hum was present when using the single power supply

(4) Could the use of capacitors in series with the audio signal lines help alleviate this problem? i.e. use 10uF or 22uF caps before inputting the analog MUX's? I've been looking at some audio switching schematics and they seem to use capacitors in series for the audio signal lines sometimes

DUAL POWER SUPPLY

SINGLE POWER SUPPLY

(4) Could the use of capacitors in series with the audio signal lines help alleviate this problem? i.e. use 10uF or 22uF caps before inputting the analog MUX's? I've been looking at some audio switching schematics and they seem to use capacitors in series for the audio signal lines sometimes

EDIT:

I've managed to get it working OK with the dual rail power supply but noise is still present

High Level Schematic

Schematic

As you can see I'm trying to choose where to output the SPK and MIC lines from the AUX to the RJ9 connector. For the SPK line, mux 2,3 and 4 are not outputting signals to the lines connected to the the mux 1 output line, thus they are an open switch.

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Audio Switching Circuit - Ground Loop Noise Problem

I'm building an adapter to connect an RJ9 headset output to a 3.5mm jack output(TRRS, mic included). I have designed it so far to use DG409 (4:1) analog multiplexers to choose what lines are connected to what (for example Pin 1 on the RJ9 connector will be connected to the Sleeve of the 3.5mm jack (TRRS). This is done by connecting one of the AUX outputs to the 1 side and choosing which of the 4 outputs to output to.

NOTE: the DG409's that I'm using have two MUX's in one chip so I'm basically grounding all the inputs/outputs of one of the muxes for each chip as I only have use for one PER chip (i'm using 4 chips to route 4 signals, Left (only mono audio needed), MIC and 2 GNDS)

The 4 outputs (on each chip) have a 1MOhm pull-down resistor on each of them while the inputs have different size pull-downs (don't know why I need this to output the audio properly). The Speaker channel has a 4.7kOhm pull-down, the MIC channel has a 220Ohm pull-down and the 2 GND lines have a 100kOhm pull-down.

I am currently powering/controlling everything off of a PIC32 microcontroller and trying to use the dual supply function (+/- 5V supply). I am supplying negative voltage via the use of a voltage converter (LTC660) which is also getting its power also from the PIC32.

Currently I'm testing it by outputting audio from a Hummingboard (Raspberry Pi like device) and inserting the RJ9 connector to a IP phone and listening to the output speaker on the IP phone.

Issues that I am seeing:

(1) Noise on the output - there is a distinct hum that I hear on the speaker when audio is playing through.

(2) the ground connected to the voltage converter (-ve voltage provider) is 2mV higher than the ground on the PIC32. NOTE: I also have connected 5 op-amps to be used as buffers (RC4558, so 10 buffers really) to the +ve and -ve voltage supplies but haven't connected them to anything yet (though I know buffers must be used for audio signal routing to maintain signal integrity) as I want to solve this hum problem first, maybe the two are related?

(3) When I run the analog MUX's in a SINGLE power supply configuration (i.e. signal swings between 5V and GND) I am able to hear the audio more clearly as the hum noise level is decreased. I thought audio was an AC signal so it required negative voltage to swing? I'm pretty sure the audio being output from the Hummingboard doesn't have a DC offset from looking at its waveform on Audacity so I'm a little confused as to why it single supply works.

NOTE: I did some measurements and the PIC32 has a different ground level from the audio ground (which I am routing through the MUX). When I use the single power supply configuration the GND difference is about ~500mV (audio signal GND is lower). When the dual power supply is in use (+/-5V) the GND difference becomes ~800mV. So I'm not sure if the analog multiplexer is limiting the audio GND level (as i'm routing through the audio GND) to -500mV (in the datasheet it says there's a 10% tolerance) or if there's some other possible reason this is occuring.

QUESTIONS:

(1)

DUAL POWER SUPPLY This hum was present when using the dual power supply

SINGLE POWER SUPPLY This hum was present when using the single power supply

Looking at the frequency analysis plot, what is the likelihood that am I experiencing a ground loop in my circuit? The noise seems to peak t 150Hz

NOTE: I'm using star-like grounding and these are the best frequency plots I could produce.

(2) Is the voltage converter's higher ground potential the cause of this? (2mV higher than PIC32 ground even though the converters ground is connected to the PIC32)

(3) Should I be trying to get the audio routing to work with the dual supply (+/-5V) or should I keep going with the single supply since it works better with it?

(4) Could the use of capacitors in series with the audio signal lines help alleviate this problem? i.e. use 10uF or 22uF caps before inputting the analog MUX's? I've been looking at some audio switching schematics and they seem to use capacitors in series for the audio signal lines sometimes