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The simple answer of a constant phase shifting element is that when this reactive element is 90 deg phase shifted current to voltage the Z(s) will also be either 1/sC or sL for the Laplace transform.

Conversely, a constant time delay system has phase integrating with f such that delay= 2pi for every multiple of t=1/f and amplitude , impedance "can" be unchanged. ( search all pass filter)

inIn every branch of applied physics and spectrum where impedance spectroscopy shows real and imaginary impedance, think of these as either dielectrics or inductors that can store energy and real as conductive or lossy medium. This applies to ULF for earth impedance scattering of soil dielectrics and minerals as well as XHF light waves.

Anecdotal

Spectroscopy does not have to be "absolute". For example Eddy current sensing for metallurgic defects. In 1977 we made a system for detecting molecular flaws in Monel steel after applied 10k Atmosphere of heavy water at super-temperatures and calibrated sensors to 0 relative impedance for a 1mm thru hole in tube steel wall and 0.5mm ring wall thickness step as 0 deg relative phase for a huge defect and then with 80 dB SNR could detect impedance changes down 10 ppm of Z or near FIR optical wavelengths of molecules. By scanning the signatures above some threshold, and historical records 10km of data was analyzed every 0.2mm to detect flaws before expensive leaks could occur. That was a long time ago. It was not the 1st SCADA type robotic system of its type, but my 1st. 10 Engineers to design one and 1 to identify all the thousands of fixes to make it work and deliver to customer in Ontario.

The simple answer of a constant phase shifting element is that when this reactive element is 90 deg phase shifted current to voltage the Z(s) will also be either 1/sC or sL for the Laplace transform.

Conversely, a constant time delay system has phase integrating with f such that delay= 2pi for every multiple of t=1/f and amplitude , impedance "can" be unchanged. ( search all pass filter)

in every branch of applied physics and spectrum where impedance spectroscopy shows real and imaginary impedance, think of these as either dielectrics or inductors that can store energy and real as conductive or lossy medium. This applies to ULF for earth impedance scattering of soil dielectrics and minerals as well as XHF light waves.

The simple answer of a constant phase shifting element is that when this reactive element is 90 deg phase shifted current to voltage the Z(s) will also be either 1/sC or sL for the Laplace transform.

Conversely, a constant time delay system has phase integrating with f such that delay= 2pi for every multiple of t=1/f and amplitude , impedance "can" be unchanged. ( search all pass filter)

In every branch of applied physics and spectrum where impedance spectroscopy shows real and imaginary impedance, think of these as either dielectrics or inductors that can store energy and real as conductive or lossy medium. This applies to ULF for earth impedance scattering of soil dielectrics and minerals as well as XHF light waves.

Anecdotal

Spectroscopy does not have to be "absolute". For example Eddy current sensing for metallurgic defects. In 1977 we made a system for detecting molecular flaws in Monel steel after applied 10k Atmosphere of heavy water at super-temperatures and calibrated sensors to 0 relative impedance for a 1mm thru hole in tube steel wall and 0.5mm ring wall thickness step as 0 deg relative phase for a huge defect and then with 80 dB SNR could detect impedance changes down 10 ppm of Z or near FIR optical wavelengths of molecules. By scanning the signatures above some threshold, and historical records 10km of data was analyzed every 0.2mm to detect flaws before expensive leaks could occur. That was a long time ago. It was not the 1st SCADA type robotic system of its type, but my 1st. 10 Engineers to design one and 1 to identify all the thousands of fixes to make it work and deliver to customer in Ontario.

2 added 343 characters in body
source | link

The simple answer of a constant phase shifting element is that when this reactive element is 90 deg phase shifted current to voltage the Z(s) will also be either 1/sC or sL for the Laplace transform.

Conversely, a constant time delay system has phase integrating with f such that delay= 2pi for every multiple of t=1/f and amplitude , impedance "can" be unchanged. ( search all pass filter)

in every branch of applied physics and spectrum where impedance spectroscopy shows real and imaginary impedance, think of these as either dielectrics or inductors that can store energy and real as conductive or lossy medium. This applies to ULF for earth impedance scattering of soil dielectrics and minerals as well as XHF light waves.

The simple answer of a constant phase shifting element is that when this reactive element is 90 deg phase shifted current to voltage the Z(s) will also be either 1/sC or sL for the Laplace transform.

Conversely, a constant time delay system has phase integrating with f such that delay= 2pi for every multiple of t=1/f and amplitude , impedance "can" be unchanged. ( search all pass filter)

The simple answer of a constant phase shifting element is that when this reactive element is 90 deg phase shifted current to voltage the Z(s) will also be either 1/sC or sL for the Laplace transform.

Conversely, a constant time delay system has phase integrating with f such that delay= 2pi for every multiple of t=1/f and amplitude , impedance "can" be unchanged. ( search all pass filter)

in every branch of applied physics and spectrum where impedance spectroscopy shows real and imaginary impedance, think of these as either dielectrics or inductors that can store energy and real as conductive or lossy medium. This applies to ULF for earth impedance scattering of soil dielectrics and minerals as well as XHF light waves.

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source | link

The simple answer of a constant phase shifting element is that when this reactive element is 90 deg phase shifted current to voltage the Z(s) will also be either 1/sC or sL for the Laplace transform.

Conversely, a constant time delay system has phase integrating with f such that delay= 2pi for every multiple of t=1/f and amplitude , impedance "can" be unchanged. ( search all pass filter)