Getting 5V from a supply that is ranging from 10V to 14V is no problem for the LM2576 and it has thermal and current limit protection.It doesn't have under-voltage-lock-out but it does have an on-off pin that can be used (with an external circuit) to provide this function.
It doesn't have reverse input voltage protection either - you should consider using a diode for this.
Getting 12V from a supply that ranges from 10V to 14V is more complicated and you can do this with a buck-boost type controller. Buck on its own can only produce voltages that are smaller than its input voltage - that is why the 5V is relatively easy. Note that there is a section in the LM2576's data sheet that talks about buck-boost but this is to produce a negative output voltage only and you should not get confused with the device - it cannot produce a boosted positive output easily.
You could use the LM2576 to produce 5V then have a boost regulator on the 5V output to produce 12V - boost regulators do what they say - they boost the voltage output and therefore the input supply voltage to them needs to be below the output voltage they produce.
Regarding the other device linked - without a circuit diagram it's guesswork as to what all the components do - UVLO would hardly account for anything more than two resistors on a lot of chips available (such as Linear Technology's offerings) and reverse voltage protection can be achieved with a maximum of three components usually.
The LT1074 can supply 5A at 5V and, given your input power is able to supply 3.3A, the 1074 may be more suitable: -
It's got enough capability to tee it's output to a boost regulator for the 12V rail providing you manage the output load currents. There's also the LT8471 that can provide two outputs - this picture shows the general idea: -
The negative 12V supply is easily made a positive supply - read the data sheet if you are interested.