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I've been trying to do a project using Arduino, I need your help to know the basic differences between these. Thank you

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closed as too broad by Chetan Bhargava, Matt Young, JYelton, tcrosley, Keelan Mar 25 '14 at 8:44

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I am surprised that you take the time to post this question here but did not take some initiative to research this before asking here. There are a multitude of information sites on the internet that can shed light in the subject of your question. Start with the data sheets of some representative parts in each part family you are interested in. Then branch out from there to the various architecture documents, users manuals and programmers guides available from these same manufacturers. Your shown lack of initiative here is not playing well into your hand. \$\endgroup\$ – Michael Karas Mar 25 '14 at 3:10
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Ignacio gave a one-line answer - a more detailed answer could take books...

Each family of microcontrollers has its own architecture - registers, memory arrangement, memory addressing methods, and other things, which results in each family having its own instruction set and assembly language.

Newer processor families like AVR and ARM are likely to be more "compiler-friendly" and generally more flexible, than the 8051, which is a fairly old design.

The 8051 is an 8-bit processor (it processes an 8 bit data word at a time).

Many AVRs are also 8 bit, but some are 32 bit (handling 32 bits of data at a time), and ARMs are 32 bit, and are considreably more powerful than 8 bit processors.

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    \$\begingroup\$ And even different models within the same family can have varied internal arrangements. \$\endgroup\$ – Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams Mar 25 '14 at 3:02

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