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So as mentioned in this article, the radio chip might have power problems and an external power source is recommended:

http://arduino-info.wikispaces.com/Nrf24L01-2.4GHz-HowTo

My question is for the ground connection, Should I connect this to the ground pin of the Arduino board? Or, since the power is seperate from the Arduino, does the GND and VCC go to the black and red external leads of the battery directly ?

chip

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The GND of the battery and the Arduino shoud be anyway connected together so it does not matter. Connect it that way and the Arduino to the battery (Vcc to 3.3V the data-pins are 5V tolerant): enter image description here

An example pin-connection would be (but this depends on your code):

An example pin-connection woud be:

For the Nano this might help:

connection for arduino nano

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I'm confused why you hooked some up to the ICSP pins which appear to be for flashing? \$\endgroup\$ – stormist Mar 28 '14 at 10:22
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    \$\begingroup\$ @stormist: Those are the SPI pins which, while also used for ISP, are used for SPI communication. \$\endgroup\$ – Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams Mar 28 '14 at 10:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ So in this example, it is optional to use them correct? I could elect to use standard digital pins right? (I ask because I'm using the Arduino Nano) Thx! \$\endgroup\$ – stormist Mar 28 '14 at 10:29
  • \$\begingroup\$ You could bit-bang SPI if you really wanted to. But it would be faster to use hardware SPI instead. \$\endgroup\$ – Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams Mar 28 '14 at 10:30
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    \$\begingroup\$ Here you have got a project with the Nrf and a Arduino Nano: link \$\endgroup\$ – kimliv Mar 28 '14 at 10:39
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Ground is used as a reference for the voltages on the SPI pins; if separate grounds are used then these voltages will not be able to be detected properly and communication between the Arduino and the wireless board will fail. Connect the grounds.

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