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I learned that peltier elements give better cooling on cascading but need to be growing in size towards the hot side.

I have 4 peltier elements of 40×40×35mm and I am planning to make a portable fridge.

Now the question is should I line them along one side parallel to each other or should I stack them up (2 sets of twos)?

If I should stack them up, should I just place them one over another, or connect them via heatsinks/metal sheets?

If I should place them parallely (on single wall) what should be the minimum distance between them?

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For making a fridge, do not attempt to stack your elements. What happens is that the lower element has to deal with the waste heat from the upper element.

Stacked Peltiers are used when the final temperature must be lower than a single element can provide, but the amount of thermal energy it can remove is much lower than what a single element can handle. That is why the top element has to be smaller than the lower ones.

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