My wife and I are expecting a baby soon and a family member has given us their previously-used, thoroughly cleaned electric breast pump. The pump came from the vendor with a "medical grade" 120V AC to 9V DC power supply (i.e., a "wall wart") that powers the pump's motor.

Based on the size and weight of the power supply, it appears to be a transformer-based linear power supply. It is marked "120V only". This is a problem, as my wife and I now live in Europe were 240V AC power is the norm.

The pump itself is fairly simple and does not seem to have highly sensitive electronics: there is an electric motor powering a peristaltic pump and a potentiometer that varies the pumping speed. My multimeter indicates that the internal electrified components are isolated from the user and the fluid being pumped, as expected.

I've tested the pump with an off-the-shelf regulated 9V switching power supply (UL-listed and CE marked) that operates on 120/240V power and which can supply more than adequate current for the pump and the pump works normally.


What is the difference between a "medical grade" AC-DC power supply and a more common, non-medical one like one would find accompanying an ordinary piece of consumer electronics?

Would a medical-grade power supply offer additional voltage stability, less ripple, greater isolation, and/or greater reliability than a standard wall wart meant for electronic devices?

While I understand that higher-grade power supplies would be important for critical life-support systems, is there any reason why a common, non-medical-grade power supply that meets the voltage/current needs of the pump would be inappropriate?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Price. Insurance policy. Component quality. \$\endgroup\$
    – JYelton
    Commented Jun 3, 2014 at 20:18
  • 4
    \$\begingroup\$ Isolation for sure. \$\endgroup\$
    – dext0rb
    Commented Jun 3, 2014 at 20:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ @JYelton You (and 3 more consumers) do not seem to have ever encountered IEC 60601. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jun 3, 2014 at 20:28
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    \$\begingroup\$ Olin Lanthrop answered what the difference is, however, you would be just fine with any old replacement wall wart that produces the desired voltage and current. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jun 3, 2014 at 20:31
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    \$\begingroup\$ @NickAlexeev: I would bet the price of a brand new pump that all of the safety requirements of the relevant 60601 sections are handled inside the pump itself, rather than in the wall wart. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jun 3, 2014 at 20:32

3 Answers 3


Medical grade power supplies have supposedly been tested to specific standards. In particular, the maximum leakage current between the hot and isolated sides will be very low. There are also other internal requirements, like a large creapage distance accross the isolation barrier.

The medical-grade requirements are to make the supply more safe, even if the isolated side is connected to a human more closely than thru ordinary skin. Some of the requirements are to reduce the chance of failures, and to decrease the chance that any one failure could electrocute someone.

All this costs money, so medical grade power supplies are significantly more expensive than ordinary ones. The volumes are less, which again drives the price up.

These extra specs have nothing to do with voltage stability, ripple, current rating, and the like.


As far as I remember, a medical grade power supply is supposed to support a voltage of 2 kV for 60 seconds.

This is essential to minimize the risk of an electric shock.

Every device has to pass a risk analysis, and even more so every medical device.

The use of a medical grad power supply is an important thing to pass the necessary tests. Most medical devices are supposed to be applied on a human.

If, e. g., there is lightning, or the power grid has a problem due to whatever other reasons, and the over-voltage hits your external hard drive, it's bad luck. But if it hits your wife while applying this device, it's fatal. For this reason, it is important to have a medical grade supply.

  • \$\begingroup\$ It wouldn't be bad to clarify what exactly wasn't helpful about my post so I can improve it. \$\endgroup\$
    – glglgl
    Commented Jun 15, 2014 at 19:33

I have observed that ordinary power supplies and power adaptors typically leave the secondary (DC output) fully floating (not earthed). This can result in "Touch Current", a small electrical Zap felt if touched. (Typically micro Amps, uA).

A characteristic of Medical Grade Power Supplies (at least the Medical Grade Desktop Power Adaptors that I am familiar with), is that one side of the secondary (DC output, typically the negative) is electrically connected (bonded) to the mains (primary) earth within the power supply / adaptor. This dissipates (bleeds to earth) any Touch Current that would otherwise be evident, hence "low leakage".

This is of course dependent on the power supply / adaptor (if fed with a "Plug In" mains power Lead) being fitted with a 3 wire mains power lead with a 3 pin mains plug, and being plugged into a correctly earthed mains power outlet.


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