Developing an FPGA is a knowledge based skill. There's a delicate balance between abstraction and understanding, and the reason tutorials tend to be so long is based on the least common denominator for understanding by their audience. No one teaches the process in abstract before 'practical' experience because of some ingrained believe system people have that because tools are GUI based they should be intuitive. The Xilinx development process may be complex enough to belie that belief. Hence you get repetition for rote learning.
To demonstrate you're unlikely to be fulfilled by 'short' tutorials see Command Line Tools User Guide (Formerly the Development System Reference Guide) which is 411 pages long (PDF, 4.9 MB). Chapter 2., Design Flow, is 17 pages long and the numerous flow diagrams it contain are detailed enough you need to zoom in on them.
Try googling with command line based Xilinx FPGA development as search terms. You'll find all sorts of interesting references, threads and the occasional tutorial. You could also note that Xilinx tutorials serve two purposes, both as a map to provide inculcation in their prescribed methodology using their graphics user interface centric tools but also to promote new silicon features and their applications.
Some of the short tutorials you'll find through the search might be Verilog instead of VHDL based, but the only place you'll really find a distinction in the process is in XST (Xilinx Synthesis Technology, the synthesizers), where there are distinctions in modeling language feature support.
There are several threads on the use of Makefiles which enforce a knowledge framework on tool process.
It's likely useful to have on-line access to Xilinx Help (ISE Help) although you'd likely find information faster with Google Search than trying to parse the Help tree or search through Xilinx Documentation.
And as you can see by reading various threads on the subject you're not alone in wanting to learn the actual methodology instead of being inculcated in how cute their tools are or what features they are promoting 'now'. (Tutorials tend to have a short half life).
There's a 32 page tutorial (tutorial.pdf) for a 0-9 seven segment display counter on a fairly modern Spartan-3 FPGA board. From this and the other answer to your question you might get the idea that tutorials are generally target platform specific.
Those found at institutes of higher learning (e.g. FPGA_Design_Flow_Xilinx.pdf, 10.8 MB, GUI oriented, Xilinx tool version specific) also serve to reinforced the idea of platform targets (as well as tutorial half life).
You might expect a tutorial example to be made available for a specific platform target, e.g. Xilinx ISE and Spartan-3 Tutorial or Lab 9 – Tutorial. You'd also note some tutorials are based on incrementally acquiring skills through a series of labs in a particular course.