$ ./avrdude -p m328p -c usbasp avrdude.exe: warning: cannot set sck period. please check for usbasp firmware update. avrdude.exe: error: programm enable: target doesn't answer. 1 avrdude.exe: initialization failed, rc=-1 Double check connections and try again, or use -F to override this check. avrdude.exe done. Thank you.
I have checked the connections on the breadboard several times (I took the chip off the Uno and connected the pinout of the USBasp to the chip directly). Does the ATmega328P need an external oscillator to be programmed (there is one on the USBasp board)?