As you can see, the one on the top is burnt. Whenever I plug the power adapter into the wall, the component releases a puff of smoke and the adapter instantly shuts itself off. The damage to the component was caused by an issue with the DC power jack, seen directly to the right. I replaced the DC jack with a new one (as you might infer by the evidence of my sloppy workmanship) but unfortunately the problem with the indicated component remains.
So, I'm just wondering, what is that thing, what does it do, and can I repair or replace it. I'm hoping that I can just replace the solder and it will work again, but I'm not exactly holding my breath.