# Input/output pin resistance for an AVR microcontroller

For example, when driving a logic-level MOSFET directly from a microcontroller, what is the smallest gate resistor that can be used?

Specifically for AVR microcontrollers; i.e. this datasheet, the maximum current that can be sourced or sunk from a pin is 40mA, for a logic-level MOSFET where the gate is driven between ground and +5V, this would mean a gate resistor of at least 125 Ohms is necessary.

However, I also see other anecdotal evidence (not in the datasheet) that the pin itself has an internal resistance of 25 Ohms; this would mean that only 100 Ohms is necessary for the gate resistor.

I can't find any references to this internal resistance in the datasheet; but it does seem to have some value. Are there any canonical references?

$\frac{0.25\text{V}}{10\text{mA}}= 25\Omega$
$\frac{5\text V - 4.75\text{V}}{10\text{mA}}= 25\Omega$
Therefore yes, the output has a resistance of 25$\Omega$ at 25$^{\circ}$C.