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I've read that the Bluetooth standard is 802.15, but it is implemented with 802.11. Is this true? Do they interfere with eachother?

What standard is Bluetooth considered to use?

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Bluetooth is IEEE 802.15.1. Bluetooth does not implement 802.11. However, it is not completely correct that Bluetooth "does nothing" with 802.11. Bluetooth v3.0 + HS allows for the alternate MAC/PHY (AMP) feature. The basic idea is that devices can use Bluetooth for coordination and small data transmissions, switching to 802.11 in a controlled way to transfer larger amounts of data faster. Bluetooth itself does not implement or specify the 802.11 MAC/PHY, however. It merely specifies a standard way to use 802.11 for bulk data transfers.

Finally, yes Bluetooth and WiFi (802.11) could interfere with one another as they both use the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Bluetooth is a frequency-agile protocol with its frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) allowing transmitters and receivers to change frequencies during transmission and giving Bluetooth resilience against noise in the 2.4 GHz band.

Personally, when I have used Bluetooth for raw data transmission in a project, I found the transmission speed to be anything but constant. I attributed this to the noisy RF environment in which it was used.

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No. Bluetooth standard is 802.15 although it doesn't do anything with the 802.11 standard of operation.

Bluetooth and WiFi (802.11) both share the 2.4GHz band, which causes some interference if not implemented properly. This is why Bluetooth uses FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) and also why you'll see some Bluetooth devices say they operate between 2.402 and 2.480 GHz

Check out this link that describes it pretty well

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