Internally, what is the difference between an optical coupler and an optical splitter. If I have an input A on a 3db splitter, creating outputs B and C, can I send signals on B and C and have them combine and come out of A?
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Generally speaking, optical couplers are usually also splitters. The internals are the same obviously, you just switch where you put the input(s).
So yes, if you are using an optical combiner/splitter you can put signals into B and C and get A out.
Directional couplers do exist, but all the 3dB splitters I've seen are also combiners.