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I've been watching videos how to make PCB at home and I understand the process. But none of them shows how 2 sides are connected, I see on some PCBs there are some circular end points, so it must be going to other side. But how is it connected ?

On arduino mini, I can see the coating inside header holes ? So does it require to coat carbon again ?

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When PCBs are produced in a factory the holes are plated through using a chemical process, but when making PCBs at home you have to put a wire or component lead through and solder both sides.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ some attempts have been made at DIY plate through, but you need industrial chemicals like methanoi and calcium hypophosphite \$\endgroup\$ – Jasen Jan 26 '15 at 9:41
  • \$\begingroup\$ They also sell rivets in various sizes that you can insert and crimp down. \$\endgroup\$ – Some Hardware Guy Jan 26 '15 at 12:37
  • \$\begingroup\$ @SomeHardwareGuy: Exactly what I thought when reading the question, and imho this would be the better answer. And btw. there are some producty like LPKF ProConduct that don't need any "bad" checmicals. \$\endgroup\$ – PlasmaHH Jan 26 '15 at 15:36

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