I am trying to build a microgrid (final year project) where a 100-250 W 48V solar array will charge a 24V battery bank and a couple of 24V loads (40W lights, 60W fan).
Batteries used (7 of this in series) : http://industrial.panasonic.com/www-cgi/jvcr13pz.cgi?E+BA+3+ACA4001+NCR18650+7+WW
I will be using a buck converter to step down the voltage of the array to that of the battery.
Assuming the power of the solar array is 200W, 200/48 = 4A~ After step up by the buck converter, it should be around 8A?
Now I am trying to figure out what will happen if only the battery is connected across it. Will it only draw as required (what happens to the solar panel's excess current?) or will the 8A of the solar panel's output be forced into the battery? (and maybe spoiling it).
Also, if the battery is near fully charged, how do I know that? Is it by checking the voltage level? Do I have to turn off the mosfet switch then (cut the connection between the array and battery)? I will be using a microcontroller to regulate PV supply using the buck converter.