For example: the LM317. Wikipedia says it was invented by National Semiconductor employees in 1970 — but now if I search for "LM317 datasheet" the results include PDFs from Fairchild Semiconductor, Texas Instruments, ON Semiconductor, Thomson Microelectronics, STMicroelectronics. Perhaps there is some variability, advantages one might have over another, but my understanding is that any LM317 is theoretically fungible for another.
I'm wondering how this comes to be, and if there's any term for this — something like "reference component" or "standardized IC"?. Now in the case when an intellectual property is violated, you might have "knockoffs" of a "proprietary" chip design. And certainly you could have legitimate licensees, like ARM does with their design cores.
But many components, say a 2N3904 transistor or IRF530 MOSFET or the aforementioned LM317, seem to be something of public domain designs yet meeting some sort of industry standard specifications.
Who sets the standards for these sort of standard components? Is there any central authority for their identification? Or is it as simple as that an original inventor both created and named a particular chip of their own as usual, but if it became popular enough, other manufacturers just began to manufacture (legal) "knockoffs" under the same name/parameters as soon as any monopoly rights expired?