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I really want to know how could a virtual coded program really affect and imitate and animate a piece of hardware.

I Have Always Seen The Diagram Of Processors In the Book Showing ALU and CPU as The Main part of the Microcontroller and Microprocessor.
I Also Know that each Command in the Assemble Has A Specific Opcode.

After The Program Is burned into the Microcontroller as HEX files,What Does This Hex File Contain, I Mean,

1->Does the opcode represent the physical state of the buses where only the buses required to perform the following task are HIGH while Others are LOW?
I wonder How things work nowdays in X86 and 64 Bit Processors. I have Tried Using Ollydbg

2-> How is the control unit able to control various components of a processors?
For Example:When The HEX Code is Burned In The ROM everything is Static Then What Does The Control Unit While Sequentially Reading the ROM.



3->What is the relation between Processor Bit (Data Bus) and No of Available Opcodes? For Example 8085 is a 8 bit Processor has a Data bus of 8 bit.

4->What Does the Opcode No/HEX Signifies And How Does it effects The DataBus? (in hardware terms)
For Example:Each Opcode in Microprocessor 8085 has a HEX code Like
For HLT(Halt)-->72H

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closed as too broad by Leon Heller, Daniel Grillo, Matt Young, Scott Seidman, Kaz Mar 24 '15 at 14:32

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • \$\begingroup\$ sorry for CamelCase \$\endgroup\$ – MaMba Mar 15 '15 at 20:08
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    \$\begingroup\$ Single questions only. Multiple questions are closed. \$\endgroup\$ – Leon Heller Mar 15 '15 at 20:12
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    \$\begingroup\$ @SEXCrow If you are sorry for the CamelCase, why don't you edit it? \$\endgroup\$ – Austin Mar 15 '15 at 21:31
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(why are you talking in CamelCase? It gives me an uneasy feeling in my stomach. Tanks for removing it, and I changed my answers slightly in response to your clarifications.)

1->Does the opcode represent the physical state of the buses where only the buses required to perform the following task are HIGH while Others are LOW?

Such processor did exist (google VLIW), but in modern deisgns the opcode controls the various busses and other controls only very very very indirectly.

How thinks work in modern processors is VERY comples. Patterson and Hennessey have written a few very good books on this subject, but I think you will need to start with some more low-level books on digital circuits.

2-> How is the control unit able to control various components of a processors?

I don't understand that question. It controls it electrically, via a wire, inputting a signal into for instance the address lines of a selector/multiplexor, or the enable input of a tri-state buffer.

The text you added did not make the question any clearer.

3->What is the realtion between Processor Bit and Available Opcode,

I have no idea what a Processor Bit is, but you can look up the bit-wise encoding of instructions in the datasheet, refrence manual, or other documentation of a processor.

There is no general relation between the width of the data bus and the number of instructions. In most cases, the instruction width is a multiple of the data bus width, and a part of this instruction width is used to identify the instruction. But in a lot of cadses the distiction between instructions and addressing modes is blurry.

4->What Does the Opcode No/HEX Signifies?

What is a "No/Hex"??

"HLT(Halt)-->72H" means that the Halt instruction is written as "HLT" in assembly language, and encoded as 0x72 in memory.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ @q1-> What Does indirectly Signifies? \$\endgroup\$ – MaMba Mar 15 '15 at 20:09
  • \$\begingroup\$ I am not an English language thesaurus. Indirectly means not directly. \$\endgroup\$ – Wouter van Ooijen Mar 15 '15 at 20:16
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Does the opcode represent the physical state of the buses where only the buses required to perform the following task are HIGH while Others are LOW?

No, opcodes represent instructions. It tells the processor things like "sum contents of register 3 and register 6 and store the result in register 7", "go to instruction n° 32735" or "load the content of memory adress 2354 and store it on register 4".

How is the control unit able to control various components of a processors?

It justs flips control wires ON/OFF. Control units are sequential logic machines, with their own memory. It's not that hard to understand.

What is the relation between Processor Bit and Available Opcode

If you have more bits for representing opcodes you can either have a bigger instruction set or more complex instructions (cuz you can tell more things to your processor).

What Does the Opcode No/HEX Signifies?

As i said before, an opcode is an instruction. Hex numbers have a direct translation to binary, e.g. 7A -> 0111 1010, what that means depends on the instruction set of the processor architecture.

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Recommend you find a book titled "But How Do It Know" by John Scott.
This is a good place to go to answer your questions and get your learning started on the right foot.

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