Yes, in fact this is exactly what was used in the D17B guidance computer for the original Minuteman I missile:
"The D-17B contains 1,521 transistors, 6,282 diodes, 1,116 capacitors,
and 504 resistors.
The design specifications of the D-17B required very high
reliability. This was achieved by using DRL (diode-resistor) logic
extensively and only using DTL (diode-transistor) logic where gain or
inversion was required in this fully solid-state computer. In the
early 1960s when the D-17B was designed, transistors were not as
reliable as they are now, thus the designers used transistors only
DL (Diode Logic) aka DRL (Diode Resistor Logic) can be used to create various logic gates such as AND, OR, OR-AND and AND-OR, but because it is made of of only passive components, the signal degrades fairly rapidly (due to the diodes, you lose 0.7v of signal for each stage). Also, due to the lack of an active element, it cannot perform inversion (so gates like NAND and NOR are not possible). Therefore, for any but the most tirivial circuits, they must be followed by a DTL (Diode Transistor Logic) or other active stage including one or more transistors.