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I recently came across an exciting device called Automile, from Sweden and what caught my eye is this -

Automile Hardware Exploded View

I am really impressed by the packaging and overall quality of hardware integration they have done, and especially the 3G and GPS antennas that they have used.

I personally am a complete beginner for antenna design. Can someone please help me understand more about these antennas? 1) What are these Antennas called 2) What types of antennas are available for 3G 3) What is the fundamental theory behind it 4) How complex it is to make such an antenna

Hope to have an interesting discussion with you guys :)

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These things are all PIFA (planar inverted F) antennas. They all perform exactly the same, though they have to be carefully designed to fit into the enclosure and have the correct resonances. The basic idea is to add cuts in such a way that the path the current takes through the antenna cause it to resonate at a lower frequency than the overall size would normally allow. This is called electrical lengthening. It results in a low efficiency, low gain, but compact antenna. They are designed with EM simulation software, and they have to model not only the antenna but also the circuit boards and case as they sit in the antenna near field and affect the performance. The antennas themselves are simply pressed out of metal, but they have to get the precise shape figured out in simulation and probably have to go through a few rounds of prototypes to get it working correctly.

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