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Is it possible to use TDMA or some kind of time synchronization / pseudo random coding for a number of transmitters so that they can be interfaced with a single master receiver without jamming?

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Without two-way communication, or a way of precisely synchronising the time, you can't.

What you can do is have your device transmit its message several times, with a random delay between the messages. This improves the chance of at least one message getting through.
Of course there's a fundamental limit to the number of transmitters that can talk at the same time, depending on the length of the message, the total time you're prepared to wait, and the probability of success that you're happy with.

You could write a simple program to investigate this, to find out how many transmissions you need to have a reasonable chance of success.

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If you have a way of declaring a node the master or at least a clock source you could create a packet that gave a time reference and transmit it every 100ms (for example). Design the protocol so that nobody transmits until they are able to receive and have successfully disciplined their own time source to the beacon.

How to discipline each node's own time to the beacon? There are a number of ways you can do this, depending on how precise you want to be and how much you're willing to put into it. A quick google search led me to a number of theoretical articles, but also some practical examples.

Once you're receiving beacons and disciplined to the master signal, TDM is pretty straightforward. Determining which time slot is your time slot is an exercise left to the designer.

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