For instance, Raspberry PI managed to destroy SD card in few weeks. (It seems to be a common problem.) However, internal storage in a smartphone works well for several years (5-years-old Nexus One is still working well). Is the internal storage made by different technology?
Is the internal storage made by different technology?
No, it is often just embedded MMC - which is technically equal to a SD card, just in a BGA package for soldering onto a PCB.
Note that there are very bad quality SD cards on the market, which do not tolerate much writing. I managed to break two el cheapo noname cards in weeks, without writing that much data with my microcontroller.
Using SWAP on SD will break even good cards with wear leveling rather quickly. Flash memory allows only a limited amount of write cycles, and swapping can cause a lot of writes.
There is 2 types of flash memory technology, NOR flash and NAND flash. NAND flash is usually used for SD cards because its cheaper, higher density but less reliable. NOR is less dense, expensive and more reliable. Phones and tables use DiskonChip technology that is NAND based but has extra logic to deal with the short comings of NAND flash. For more read info this white paper I wonder if the raspberry PI doesn't implement a very good wear leveling scheme to avoid the SD cards from failing
NOTE: The attached white paper dates back to '02 so the densities stated are low compare to today's standards