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Here is a low pass filter bode plot:

enter image description here

In the bode plot theory, what is K called? What is ω0 called? What do these two represent for a low pass filter? Does K not represent an amplification or attenuation of the main signal regardless of the low pass filter?

A peculiar thing is that the gain which is a magnitude is being divided by K and the frequency axis is being divided by ω0. Why is?

Why does it specifically start from 0.1 on the frequency axis?

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K is the gain, and w0 is the cutoff or corner frequency.

For many purposes, frequency is normalized to the cutoff, which is then at (unitless) 1.0. Many filter design equations work the same way. The axis stating at 0.1 is simply because you can't show zero on a log scale. If anything interesting were going on down there, they would have went down to 0.01 or lower

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