In general antennas need a "clear view" so that the radiated EM waves can "escape". This "clear view" needs to be at least on one side, where else would the waves go ? The antennas on the edge of PCBs are usually omnidirectional antennas meaning they radiate on all sides. A ground plane on one side disturbes this of course but in many cases this is acceptable.
In your case radiating in the plane parallel to the PCB should be avoided as the groundplanes/other components will reflect the radiation and this you want to avoid.
But you do still have 2 sides available ! Up and down !
There are antennas that radiate straight up and down, one example is the patch antenna. However, you have to consider if the limited direction in which the radiation is radiated is acceptable for your application !