Your schematic looks like a highpass filter at 5Hz...if it were a mono balanced cable. (single signal appears between the two signal wires alone) But it looks like you want stereo unbalanced. (separate signal appears between each of the two signal wires and ground, one each for left and right) So I'd question the suitability of that schematic in the first place.
If it were me, I'd wire it straight-through without any resistors, capacitors, or anything else. Just the two connectors and some wire.
That being said, capacitors that position are often used for highpass, as mentioned above, or to block DC. (special case of highpass because DC = 0Hz) The use of bigger capacitors in a highpass or lowpass will simply reduce the cutoff frequency by the same factor.
In your case, you have 100x the capacitance, so the cutoff frequency of the filter will be 1/100 of what it would have been, or 0.05Hz. This means that it won't filter as much inaudible sub-bass (doesn't matter if there isn't any to start with) and it'll take 100x as long to settle on plug/unplug/power-on/power-off events. If that's okay, then go ahead and use them.
Ignacio and others also have a good point about polarization. Electrolytic caps are made as short-circuits and then "charged" with DC very loosely like a battery to form an oxide (rust) layer that insulates the internal parts so it's not a short anymore. Give them the opposite polarity than what they're marked with, and the oxide dissolves again. If you need a lot of capacitance without the polarization, you can use two caps in reverse series with twice the capacitance each, or you can buy non-polarized electros that are basically that in a single package.