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It seems like you could protect yourself from a Tazer by having a conductive metal in your clothing that would complete a circuit between the two prongs with lower resistance than your skin. Since people don't do this I guess it probably doesn't work. Can anyone explain why to someone without much electrical experience?

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"Since people don't do this...", well, no one I know goes around wearing a ceramic-plates-enhanced bulletproof vest, but this doesn't mean it doesn't work. We need some hard evidence.

Someone already has had this idea, and it seems it provoked a bit of a controversy..

A seemingly more effective countermeasure is lining your clothes with carbon fibers. There is also an instructable about that!

Of course you could turn the volume up to eleven and use a Faraday suit:

enter image description here

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Depends on the type of the Taser. If it is a Taser gun, the projectiles would probably puncture the aluminium foil. You would have to wear something like a very thin but strong chainmail to be protected from that.
If it is a standard Taser, and the aggressor applies it to the aluminium foil, you would be protected as far as the aluminium is intact. Of course, it is very unlikely someone would prefer to tase your clothes over your exposed skin.
Overall, from the electrical point of view, you would be OK as far as the mechanical integrity of the armor is preserved.
Edit: an additional risk is that the metal may reach high temperatures due to the voltage present between the Taser's terminals and you may be burnt.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I don't think that the high temperature can do any harm. Since Tasers are 'non lethal weapons' (at least in theory) they must at least limit the current or the duration of the shock to some sensible maximum. Aka, only that much jules are allowed. \$\endgroup\$ – Nils Pipenbrinck Jul 25 '15 at 3:12
  • \$\begingroup\$ Well, according to this patent (patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/…), a pulse has 0.9-10 J and you have 2-40 pulses per second. Taking an average value of both, you get about 85.5W being delivered. If you consider an aluminium foil, 80W being applied in a tiny area between the electrodes will surely heat it up a lot. \$\endgroup\$ – gstorto Jul 25 '15 at 7:48

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