CPU means 'central processing unit', so any component which is 'central' to a system and does most of its processing can be called a CPU. For example, a microprocessor can be called a CPU. However, that same processor when installed in a supercomputer with 10,000 sockets, isn't really considered a CPU anymore, merely a compute node. However, CPU does not have to refer to a chip - it could also refer to a whole board or chassis, especially with old computers before ICs existed or were dense enough to contain a complete processor. It can also refer to the part of a chip that actually does the processing, as in a microcontroller or system-on-chip that has many components integrated on the same die, in addition to a processor. So it occasionally refers to chips, but it does not have to.
An IC, on the other hand, could possibly refer to a CPU, but there are many ICs that are not CPUs. A CPU specifically executes instructions of a computer program, and there are many chips that do not do this. For example, your computer also has RAM, which stores data and does not carry out any processing. There are also a great number of analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits that only implement specific functions, such as amplifiers, data converters, regulators, power supply controllers, timers, serializers, deserializers, multiplexers, etc.