Can someone help me identify what these cables are for?
I'm guessing (and hoping) the one in the bedroom is for a cat 5 wall socket -- and that these corresponds to some of the cables exiting in the basement ceiling.
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The cables in the top photo seem to be telephone wires, but certainly not cat5 cables. It looks like two telephone wires were connected together.
Cat5 ethernet cables always have 8 insulated wires, grouped into 4 twisted pairs. The cable is thicker and the insulation quite thin so that you can see bulges formed by the twisted pairs.
In the bottom photo I can't see the cable(s), but the colors are wrong for cat 5 cable.
More information on cat5 cable, including the proper colors, can be found e.g. here.