Depends on the value of the capacitor and resistor, and the load applied to the other side of the capacitor. The "charge" and "discharge" of a capacitor promotes a current into and out of the capacitor plates. If there is enough current to load the capacitor plates, at a time this current will reduce to virtually zero (never zero), and you will measure almost zero volts.
Your voltmeter has a resistance, normally in MegOhms range. When measuring voltage, the current that flows through the voltmeter is the responsible to develops a voltage that the voltmeter will shows.
If the capacitor is fully loaded, no more current will flow through it, so you will not measure any voltage at its output. But if the capacitor is not fully charged yet, what must be the case in your example, you will measure voltage.
If you multiply the value of the resistor by the capacitor (ohms and farads), you will have a value in seconds that means how long the capacitor will take to charge 66% of its total charge.
If you don't have a load at the right side of the capacitor, the circuit is incomplete, so the capacitor never charge.
However, if you add a small resistive load from that capacitor lid to ground, lets say, 10k to 100k ohms, the capacitor will charge fast and you will measure no more voltage.