Data, Address and Control buses connect all of the 'subsystems' of a computer.
Address+Data+Control will connect the processor chip to external Memory and Peripheral Interfaces which will be contained in separate modules or chips on a laptop, desktop PC or server motherboard.
Peripheral Interfaces are the electronics which talk to the physical world, such as the CPU's view of SATA, Ethernet, Video-control, USB, WiFi, etc.
Address+Data+Control will connect to features internal to a CPU chip. For example on higher-end processors, features would include the cache controller or memory control. Hence those groups of signals are both within the chip, and across the motherboard (Printed Circuit Board, or PCB)
There may be some confusion caused by Microcontrollers. These chips contain the CPU, memory (flash and RAM), and Peripheral Interfaces within the chip. Further, many families of chips do not expose any of the internal Address, Data or Control signals. So descriptions of Microcontrollers may say that Address, Data and Control are only within the chip.