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I am trying to understand counters. Can anyone of you clarify me about terms (Divide by N) and Modulo(N) used in counter? What exactly it means?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Do you understand the structure of a digital counter? Do you understand flip-flops? If not, then go do research because any answer that works for you is too big to write here. Of course I'd like to think that your profile gave me some clue about your expertise but, as usual all I see is another mug-shot that means nothing. \$\endgroup\$ – Andy aka Dec 3 '15 at 23:40
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yes I do understand the structure of a digital counters and I guess Divide by N corresponds to frequency division. Means the output frequency of counter will be clock frequency/ N. Am I correct? \$\endgroup\$ – Ranjan Dec 3 '15 at 23:55
  • \$\begingroup\$ Do you have an understanding of modulo maths? \$\endgroup\$ – Andy aka Dec 4 '15 at 0:06
  • \$\begingroup\$ no I don't know about modulo maths \$\endgroup\$ – Ranjan Dec 4 '15 at 0:08
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    \$\begingroup\$ modulo(n) = remainder when dividing by n. \$\endgroup\$ – Tom Carpenter Dec 4 '15 at 0:28
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A Divide by N counter implies that it divides the input clock frequency by N ie; if you cascade four flip-flops then, the output of every stage is divided by 2, if you are taking the output from the 4th flip-flop, then its output frequency is clock frequency by 16 (2^4).

Example: take a look at the timing diagram of a 3bit counter

enter image description here

A modulo N counter does the same thing as above and is also used as an alternate definition which implies that the counter counts N states.

Example: If a MOD-10 counter counts 10 states ( 0000 - 1000 )

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I think simple answer is this

A counter which is reset at the Nth clock pulse is called Mod N counter or Divide by N counter.

found it here

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