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Because my system needs higher power for the ultrasonic transducer, I need to drive the transducer with higher voltage.

I came up with following ideas driving transducer with 10V peak to peak voltage.

a) High = 10V, Low = 0 V

b) High = 5V, Low = 0V

Method a) works with negative connection tied to ground, and positive connection oscillating between 0V and 10V.

Method b) works without negative connection tied to ground. Rather, both negative and positive connection is driven with 5V high and 0V low oscillation, but with 180 degree phase shifted resulting in POS-NEG oscillating between (-5V ~ +5V).

Below is graph showing V(pos) - V(neg) enter image description here

Is there difference between the two methods in terms of driving power and longevity of the transducer? Or Does it depend on transducers?

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As far as the transducer is concerned there is no difference -- it sees a 10 V peak AC signal in either case. Version b) has zero average DC voltage across the transducer, while a) has a 5 V average. This will have no effect on an ultrasonic transducer, but could on other ones.

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