# the maximum and minimum output voltage of op-amp

my question is a bit specific, I have done the research but I got confused.

I am trying to measure the current using current sense resistor and a current sense amplifier INA 210 . my measurements will be taken using a 5V ADC( arduino). and I will be having 5V power supply to power up the ADC and the op-amp.

I want to measure current from 0- 0.5 amp, and lets say my op-amp gain is 100. so I have a chosen a current sense resistor of 0.1 ohm so when the current is max 0.5 amp, the voltage across the resistor will be 0.5 amp*0.1 ohm = 0.05 volt and when amplified amplified it will be 5 volt which is the full range of the op-amp.

that is okay but then I figured that the output of the op-amp will not swing to reach the supply voltage as it will reach bellow the 5 V supply voltage and it won't reach 0 volt which is my system ground.

my questions are: 1- I got confused getting the maximum and minimum output ranges and here are two pictures of the values I suspect, which one is true? and here is the second picture: 2- second question is , if the second picture is the case, how to solve this problem? I mean this way I want be able to read the higher voltages above the op-amp range and the lower voltages bellow the other end of the op-amp output ranges

• One of them is what the opamp is capable to do, and one is what you are allowed to do with its pins. – PlasmaHH Feb 3 '16 at 12:35
• ... without damaging it. Maximum ratings: what can you safely apply externally. Electrical Characteristics: what can the IC do by itself. – Bimpelrekkie Feb 3 '16 at 12:37