We're busy with a project, we are building a 'stabilized duocoper system' with two DC motors, they have to make the 'arm' stable, so when it goes more to the right the left motor has to turn more fast to make the angle zero, so that it stands vertical on the earth.

My question is, how do I make the mathematical model, my controller is a PID-controller, but what is there in my 'system block', I think my DC motors but what else, and how do I've so put them in my mathematical model?

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    \$\begingroup\$ It's your driver and the motors. The input will be the controller output, 0 to 100% and the output will be the effect, acceleration, pitch, roll, yaw, etc., which your sensor will pick up. \$\endgroup\$
    – Transistor
    Feb 7, 2016 at 15:57

1 Answer 1


The "system" is your mathematical model of the real world that you want to affect. It typically comprises physical laws, such as Newton's 3rd, conversion terms, energy conservation terms, thermal laws, in-flow/out-flow logic, etc.

You can make it as fancy as you like, but it is probably best to find a simple model that captures the dynamical properties of the system reasonable well.

As a minimum, you need to include state variables for entities you want controlled, and you need to relate actuators, state and measurements by equations, capturing the dynamic behavior.


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